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Arte mexicano

Galdo Guzmán, Diego de

DomaineTraditions non-occidentales
SecteurGrammaires amérindiennes [4605]
Liens

Internet Archive (éd. 1642)

Auteur(s)

Galdo Guzmán, Diego de

Datation: † 1649

Galdo Guzmán was the first Augustinian who published a grammar of Nahuatl. He was the first professor (catedrático propietario) who taught at the Real Universidad. As professor, he had to teach both Nahuatl and Otomi languages which belonged to the same chair (Plaza y Jaén 1931 [siglo XVII], Vol. 1, Libro Cuarto, Capitulo 12, § 89, p. 352-353). This chair was already established in 1580, but it took more than 60 years before language instruction of indigenous languages started. It has been documented that he completed his Arte mexicano in four months (Guzmán Betancourt 2002, p. 484; Paso y Troncoso 1887, p. 194; Antochiew 1984, p. 341-342; Guzmán Betancourt 2001).

Titre de l'ouvrageArte mexicano por el Padre Don Diego de Galdo Guzman [Gvzman], religioso, y Predicador del Orden de N.P. S. Augustin, Cathedratico Proprietario de las Lenguas Mexicana, y Otomi, en la Real Vniuersidad de Mexico. Dirigido a N. Reverendissimo P.M. Fr. Francisco de Mendoça, Prouincial de el orden de N.P.S. Augustin, en esta Prouincia del Santissimo Nombre de IESVS desta Nueua España
Titre traduitMexican grammar (composed) by Father Don Diego de Galdo Guzmán, clergyman, and Preacher of the Order of Saint Augustine, Professor of the Nahuatl and Otomi languages at the Royal University of Mexico. Dedicated to the very Reverend father Francisco de Mendoça, “Provincial” of the Order of Saint Augustine, en this Province of “Santísimo Nombre de Jesús” in New Spain
Titre courtArte mexicano
Remarques sur le titre
Période|17e s.|
Type de l'ouvrageComplete grammar covering phonology, morphology and syntax. with additional didactic material (not included in all manuscripts). Descriptive grammar, Didactic/pedagogic grammar for learners of Nahuatl, Grammar for non-native speakers of Nahuatl, novices students of the university, who were preparing themselves for the mission.
Type indexéGrammaire descriptive | Grammaire didactique | Grammaire élémentaire
Édition originale1642, Mexico, por la Viuda de Bernardo Calderón, en la calle de S. Augustín.
Édition utiliséeJohn Carter Brown Library: B642. G149a.
Volumétrie[8], 206, [2] leaves; 15 cm (in-8°). Approx. 32.000 words.
Nombre de signes192000
Reproduction moderneReprint: Museo Nacional de México. Imprenta del gobierno Federal en el Ex-Arzobispado (1890).
DiffusionNo reprints during the colonial period.
Langues ciblesLanguages of the Mexicas (= Nahuatl)
MétalangueSpanish (Castilian)
Langue des exemplesNahuatl
Sommaire de l'ouvrage[Licencia], written by Luys de Tobar Godinez. Parecer, written by Geronimo de Majuelo. Aprouacion, Fr. Iuan Rubio Difinidor de la Orden de N.P.S. Augustin. Aprouacion, Doctor Don Pedro de Barrientos, Iuan Guerrero. Aprouacion, Luys Fonte de Mesa. Erratas.
Prologo, Diego de Galdo Guzman. Aduertencia importante, para inteligencia deste Arte.
Libro primero de las las [sic] Declinaciones. Cap. 1: De la manera que se halla de declinaciones, y el numero dellas (f. 1r-3r). Primera parte [declinaciones, 3r-6v; formación de plurales (6v-7v)]. Cap. 2. Difinicion de la primera declinacion (7v-9v) [Notas de las declinaciones (7v-15v)]. Cap.3. De los nombres substantiuos, deriuatiuos, y compuestos (15v-19r). §.1. De los compuestos (19r-20r). §.2. De los deriuatiuos (20r-21r). §.3. - §.4. [no title of the paragraphs, dealing with more derivatives]. §.5. De los diminutiuos (24v-26r). §.6. De los comparatiuos (26r-26v). Cap. 4: De los relatiuos, ò demonstratiuos y pronombres (27r-30v). Cap. 5. De los verbos reciprocos intransitiuos (31r-33r). Cap. 6. De los adjetiuos (33r-34r). Cap. 7. De los pronombres (34r-44v).
Segunda Parte. Cap. 1. Primera conjugacion de verbos regulares (45r-57v). Cap. 2. Segunda conjugacion de los verbos regulares (57v-69r). Cap. 3. Comiença la conjugacion passiua (69r-75v). Cap. 4. De los verbos irregulares (76r-98v).
Comiença la Tercera parte deste arte. Cap. 1. En que se trata de la formacion de los tiempos (98v-110r). Cap. 2. Formacion de la passiua, y de los verbos impersonales (110r-116r). Cap. 3. De las differencias de todos los verbos (116r-120v). Cap. 4. De los verbos passiuos (120v-122v). Cap. 5. De los verbos neutros (122v-125v). Cap. 6. De los reuerenciales (125v-134r). Cap. 7. De los verbos deriuatiuos, y de los que se componen con otros verbos (134r-136v). Cap. 8. De los verbos que se componen de otros (136v-146r). Cap. 9. De los nombres verbales (146r-149v). Cap. 10. Siguense los de la voz passiua (149v-150r). Cap. 11. Siguense de la voz impersonal (150r-151r). Cap. 12. Siguense los nombres verbales adjetiuos (151r-153r). Cap. 13. De los verbos neutros, de quien tambien salen nombres verbales y son de dos maneras (153r-158r). Cap. 14. Preposiciones que se arman sobre otras preposiciones (158r-158r [sic] =166r). Cap. 15. De los Adueruios (166r-169r). Cap. 16. De los Adueruios locales (169r-194v). Cap. 17. De los nombres, y adueruios (194v-196v). Cap. 18. De las conjunciones, ò interposiciones, y de otras particulas (196v-198v). Cap. 19. De las interjeccioens [sic] (198v-199r). Cap. 20. De algunas particulas (199r-200v). Cap. 21. De algunas maneras de hablar (200v-206r). Tabla de los capitulos que se contienen en este Arte (207r-[208v]).
Objectif de l'auteurGaldo Guzmán composed his grammar particularly for his language teaching at the university. According to him, his grammar is ‘clear’ and ‘brief’ (“La breuedad ayuda mucho à la memoria”, f. 75r). In the ‘Parecer’ of the Arte Gerónimo de Majuelo explains that Galdo's grammar is ‘clear’, ‘inteligible’ and ‘elegant’. It is not only useful for beginners, but also for advanced students. In the ‘Aprobación’ written by Juan Rubio, it is stressed that this work exceeds all the preceding grammars in ‘erudición’, ‘elegancia’ and ‘claridad’.
Intérêt généralThe grammar was a success as a pedagogical tool for students at the Royal university, and was praised for its “claridad” and “concision”. The work was written with the purpose to learn the language quickly (“con presteza”) and easily (Eguiara y Eguren 2010 [1755], p. 840). Regarding originality, the work does not offer much novel, but combines several aspects elaborated by his Franciscan and Jesuit predecessors. From the Jesuit grammarian Rincón (1595) he reproduced the division of the noun into five declensions, but the division of his grammar in three books, seems to be inspired by Olmos, although the contents of these books are slightly different (Guzmán Betancourt 2002, p. 484). Galdo Guzmán does not elaborate on Rincón's sections on the ‘saltillo’ and vowel length. The work does not end with a section on prosody/ accentuation.
Parties du discoursAs the author explains, in this language all the eight parts of speech are present, as in Latin: Noun, pronoun, verb, participle, preposition, adverb, interjection and conjunction (f. 1r).
Innovations term.“Suspenso”, “mediacion agudo”, marked by “virgulillas”, or “accentos”. No trace of the term “saltillo” (glottal stop), as it was used by Rincón. This phoneme is explained in a special section “Aduertencia importante”, following the prologue and preceding the grammar. Galdo Guzmán uses “elegante” as synonym of “reuerencial” (honorific) (f. 95v; 133r). Interposiciones (f. 196v) is a term introduced in grammars of Tarascan (particularly by Lagunas, see the entry in CTLF, in preparation), but in the Nahuatl tradition Galdo Guzman is the first who used it. There is also a large section on the so-called ‘romances’ (Cap. XXI) (cf. Zwartjes 2007).
Corpus illustratifMost examples are paradigms. Some examples are specifically chosen for the confession (f. 180v).
Indications compl.
Influence subieGaldo Guzmán follows the classification of five declensions of Rincón, although he does not mention this source explicitly.
Influence exercéeGaldo Guzmán's grammar was praised in the prologues of later grammars, such as the prologue of the Arte of Pérez (1713).
Renvois bibliographiques→ Références
Antochiew M. 1984; Eguiara y Eguren J. J. 1755; Galdo Guzmán D. de 1890; Guzmán Betancourt I. 2001; Guzmán Betancourt I. 2002; Paso y Troncoso F. del & González Obregón L. (éd.) 1904; Plaza y Jaén C. B. 1931; Zwartjes O. 2007
Rédacteur

Zwartjes, Otto

Création ou mise à jour2017-05