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Arte de el idioma mexicano

Pérez, Manuel

DomaineTraditions non-occidentales
SecteurGrammaires amérindiennes [4610]

Internet Archive (éd. 1713)


Pérez, Manuel

Datation: fl. premier quart du 18e siècle

Date of birth unknown (Mexico city). Death probably before June 7th, 1725. He was burried at the “Convento Mayor de San Agustín”. Manuel Pérez was a priest of the Order of the Augustinians (O.S.A.). Master in Theology and Philosophy in the Province of the “Santísimo Nombre de Jesús” of New Spain. He was “Cura-Ministro de Doctrina y Predicador de los Naturales” at the “Parroquia y el Convento del Real Colegio de San Pablo” in Mexico city. He learned Nahuatl during his 5 years stay at Chiautla de la Sal (today Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla, near the borders of the States Morelos and Guerrero), in the territories called “Tierra Caliente” and “Marquesado del Valle”, or “Marquesado del lado Sur”. He was Professor (catedrático) of Nahuatl during 22 years at the Royal University of Mexico, where he was known as “Cicerón mexicano”. Manuel Pérez was also “visitador de la Provincia Agustiniana del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús”.

Titre de l'ouvrageArte de el idioma mexicano. Por el P. Fr. Manuel Pérez del Orden de N.P. San Augustin, hijo de la Santa Provincia del Santissimo Nombre de Jesus, actual actual Visitador en ella, Cura-Ministro, por su Magestad, de la Parroquia de los Naturales del Real Collegio de San Pablo, y Cathedratico de dicho Idioma en la Real Vniversidad de Mexico. Dedicalo a la dicha Santissima Provincia
Titre traduitGrammar of the Mexican Language, by Father Manuel Pérez of the Order of Saint Augustine, sun of the Santa Provincia del Santissimo Nombre de Jesus, actual visitor of this Province, priest-minister by the Magesty of the Parroquia de los Naturales del Real Collegio de San Pablo and Professor of this language at the Real Universidad de Mexico. Dedicated to the mentioned Santissima Provincia
Titre courtArte de el idioma mexicano
Remarques sur le titre
Période|18e s.|
Type de l'ouvrageComplete grammar of Nahuatl covering phonology, morphology and syntax. Descriptive grammar, Didactic/pedagogic grammar for learners of Nahuatl at the Royal University of Mexico. Grammar for non-native speakers of Nahuatl, novices students who were preparing themselves for the mission.
Type indexéGrammaire descriptive | Grammaire didactique | Grammaire élémentaire | Grammaire didactique | Grammaire pour étrangers
Édition originale1713. Mexico city, Francisco de Ribera Calderón. John Carter Brown Library has two copies BA713 P438a and BA713 P438f. The latter is bound with the Farol indiano, y guia de curas de Indios. Mexico, Francisco de Ribera Calderón, 1713, probably bound together at publication.
Édition utiliséeFirst Edition 1713. Publisher: Mexico, Francisco de Ribera Calderón.
Volumétrie[16], 80, [4] p.; 21 cm. (in 4°). Text in Spanish and Nahuatl. Woodcut ornamental initials, and tail-pieces, head-piece of printer's ornaments. 28 000 words in the edition of Zwartjes & Flores Farfán (2016).
Nombre de signes140948
Reproduction moderneArte de el idioma mexicano (1713). Edición y estudio introductorio de Otto Zwartjes y José Antonio Flores Farfán, Frankfurt/Madrid: Vervuert/Iberoamericana (Lingüística misionera, vol. 8), 2016.
DiffusionTwo editions only: 1713, Reproduction in “Clásicos Tavera” (Hernández de León-Portilla 1999) and 2016 (critical edition).
Langues ciblesThe Mexican Language (Nahuatl). With notes on the variety as it was spoken in “Tierra Caliente”
MétalangueSpanish. The authors as Pérez usually use glottonyms as “romance” or “castellano”, not “español” yet
Langue des exemplesNahuatl, often with regional varieties of the “Tierra Caliente” (Chiautla), contrasted with the variety of the Central Valley of Mexico
Sommaire de l'ouvrageDedicatoria. Aprobación by Antonio de Gama, Licencia del Superior Govierno. Parecer by Francisco Rodríguez. Licencia del Ordinario by Antonio de Villa-Señor y Monrroy. Aprobación by Joseph de Padilla. Licencia de la Orden by Balthasar Sánchez. Al lector by Manuel Pérez.
[Libro Primero]. Capitulo I, De las pronunciaciones en Nombre, y Verbos (p. 1-2). Capitulo II, De las Letras que faltan à este Idioma (p. 2-3). Capitulo III, De Las Declinaciones de los Nombres (p. 3-5). Capitulo IV, De los Plurales de las particulas que otros ponen en quarta y quinta Declinacion (p. 6-7). Capitulo V, De la Significacion de dichas Particulas (p. 7-8). Capitulo VI, De los casos declinables (p. 9-10). Capitulo VII, De los Pronombres (p. 10-13). Capitulo VIII, La formación de los Tiempos (p. 13-15). Capitulo IX, De la Conjugacion de el Verbo (p. 16-18). Capitulo X, De las Noticias, y Oraciones (p. 18-21). Conjugación de Gerundios (p. 22-23). Capitulo XI, De los verbos que mudan los Preteritos (p. 23-25). Capitulo XII, Ponese la Regla mas general de los que reciben C (p. 25-26). Capitulo XIII, De los que diferencian la Passiva (p. 26-28). Capitulo XIV, Verbo Impersonal (p. 28-30). Capitulo XV, Verbos Irregulares (p. 30-35). Capitulo XVI, De los Verbos Reflexivos (p. 35-38). Capitulo XVII, Verbos Compulsivos (p. 38-40). Capitulo XVIII, Verbos Aplicativos (p. 40-43). Capitulo XIX, Verbos Reverenciales (p. 43-45). Capitulo XX, Verbos Frequentativos (45-46). Capitulo XXI, Del Participio (p. 46-47). Capitulo XXII, Præposicion (p. 47-52).
Libro Segundo. Notas Necessarias (p. 53-63).
Libro Tercero. De la Derivacion de Nombres, y verbos (p. 63-67).
Libro Quarto. De las Composiciones de las partes de la Oracion (p. 67-76). §. Vnico. Notanse algunos modos de hablar, assi en regla como fuera de ella (p. 74-76).
Libro Quinto.De las Quantidades (p. 76-80). §. Vnico. Notanse algunas diferencias de significacion es en vn mismo vocablo (p. 78-80).
Objectif de l'auteurThe author describes mainly the Nahuatl as it was used in the central Valley of the city of Mexico. The data are dervied from previous sources, such as Agustín de Vetancurt (O.F.M.) and Horacio Carochi (S.J.). In addition, Pérez gives often regional varieties from the “Tierra Caliente”/“Marquesado del Valle”, which is more or less the region around Chiautla, where in his age lived speakers of Nahuatl, although it belonged to the “zona mixteca”. The author gives explicit information in the section “Al lector”. Pérez mentions three main reasons to write a new grammar: (1) additional “novelties” (novedades) not found in the sources of his predecessors; (2) additional information related to etymology; and (3) the acquisition of a good pronunciation.
Intérêt généralAfter the pioneering works of Andrés de Olmos, Alonso de Molina, Antonio Rincón and Horacio Carochi, students and learners needed an abridged method, according to the prologue of the author. As Juan Guerra and Thomas de Aquino Cortés y Zedeño, – who described the regional variety of Jalisco –, Manuel Pérez includes regional varieties of the region called “Tierra caliente”, although his method is not a systematic nor complete description of this variety. Pérez marked “novelties” with asterixes in the text, some of them are often new approaches, pedagogical descriptions and some include etymology as a learning tool. There are some new approaches to phonology (/tl/, /tz/ and /ch/), morphology (“morph-to-morph” segmentation) and semantics. Pérez contributed to the so-called “syntax-debate” about the (non) existence of ‘syntax’ in Nahuatl, which started by Rincón and Carochi. According to Pérez any language has syntax: (“ningún idioma puede carecer de sintaxis” (Arte, p. 67)
Parties du discoursTraditional parts of speech system, with the ‘extensions’ of the Greco-Latin system (applicative, compulsive, verbs, etc.).
Innovations term.No new terms introduced. Pérez has an eclectic approach, and takes over metalinguistic terms established by his predecessors, such as the “semipronombre” (Rincón 1595, f. 7r/8r; Carochi 1645, f. 10r, 15r); Vetancurt (1673, f. 14v); Pérez (1713, p. 10). He does not use “semipronombre conjugativo”, but the “pronombre conjugativo” (Pérez 1713, p. 11, 56). “Pronombre paciente” (Vetancurt 1673, f. 4v; Pérez 1713, p. 57), “nota de paciente” (Vetancurt 1673, f. 19r; Pérez 1713, p. 13, 40) “nota de transición” (Carochi 1645, f. 13r, 14r-v; Pérez 1713, p. 12, 28, 36, 56, 78). “Nota de transición y signo de acusativo” (Pérez 1713, p. 56).
Corpus illustratifThe grammar of Pérez does not include many complete sentences for the learner, as Carochi did. Some examples are taken from Carochi, but most Nahuatl examples are isolated words translated into Spanish. They are used for the explanation of morphology. Quite a few examples have a religious content, but some are more “common speech” (as on p.; 61: “Para ir a Mexico es menester andar mucho”).
Indications compl.Pérez contributed to the historiography of Translation Studies, mainly in the works Farol Indiano (1713) and Cathecismo Romano (1723). In these works, additional notes are included, and there are some cross-references to the Arte. The treatise La Protesta is the earliest text related to Translation Studies in Nahuatl, where Pérez gives Nahuatl equivalents of the concepts of ‘legitimate translation’, ‘equivalence’, ‘composition’, etc.
Influence subiePérez mentions Juan de Mijangos, Horacio Carochi and Augustín de Vetancurt and some others. He also refers to his predecessor, not mentioning his name, but this must be Bernabé Páez (O.S.A.; 1689-1700), who was ‘catedrático’ at the ‘Real Universidad de México’, and author of a work entitled Reglas para aprender con facilidad la lengua Mexicana, which has been lost.
Influence exercéeThe Arte of Pérez work does not seem to have had a great impact on other works, although Carlos de Tapia Zenteno cites him quite often, sometimes corroborating his views, sometimes criticising them.
Renvois bibliographiques→ Références
Beristáin y Souza J. M. 1883; Canger U. 1995; Díaz Mireles A. L. 2011; Eguiara y Eguren J. J. 1755; Guzmán Betancourt I. 1998; Hernández de León-Portilla A. 1988; Hernández de León-Portilla A. (éd.) 1999; Medina J. T. 1908; Muñoz y Manzano (Conde de la Viñaza) C. 1892; Palau y Dulcet A. 1923; Saranyana J.-I. & Alejos Grau C.-J. (éd.) 2005; Suárez Roca J. L. 1992; Zwartjes O. & Flores Farfán J. A. (éd.) 2017

Zwartjes, Otto

Création ou mise à jour2016-11