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Compendio del Arte de la lengua mexicana

Carochi, Horacio

DomaineTraditions non-occidentales
SecteurGrammaires amérindiennes [4614]
Liens

Internet Archive (éd. 1759)

Auteur(s)

Carochi, Horacio

Datation: 1579?-1662?

Horacio Carochi was born in Florence in 1579 (in other sources 1584 or in 1586; León-Portilla 1983, p. xiii) and died in 1662, according to León-Portilla (ibid.), but in the New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia the year 1666 is mentioned as in Alegre (1956-1960, vol. 2: 250, 650 and vol. 3, p. 265-266).
Carochi entered the Society of Jesus in 1601, where he studied philosophy. He settled first in Tepotzotlán, New Spain. He was ordained priest in 1609. He followed Rincón's grammar closely as his disciple although he was never taught by him personally. In 1644 he became rector of the Colegio Máximo de San Pedro y San Pablo in Mexico, where he completed his Arte de la lengua mexicana. In 1657 he returned to Tepotzotlán, where he stayed until his death five years later. Carochi was proficient in Italian (his mother tongue), Spanish, Latin, Greek and Hebrew and in the New World he was a specialist in Nahuatl and Otomi. He wrote grammars and dictionaries of both languages, but unfortunately the Otomi grammar has been lost (the titles are known: Arte y Vocabulario otomíes and his Vocabulario or Vocabulario otomí, León-Portilla 1983, p. xix-xx).

Adaptateur(s)

Paredes, Ignacio

Datation: 1703-1762

Ignacio Paredes was born in a town which is called today Libres, near Puebla (San Juan de los Llanos) on January 20th, 1703. When he was nineteen years old, he entered the Order of the Jesuits. He was rector of the Colegio de San Andrés in Mexico and taught Nahuatl at the Colegio de San Gregorio from 1751 until his death in 1762. He translated the catechism of the Jesuit Jerónimo de Ripalda into Nahuatl and published the work Promptuario mexicano, containing «pláticas con sus exemplos» and sermons in Nahuatl (Paredes 1758 and 1759).

Titre de l'ouvrageCompendio del Arte de la lengua mexicana del P. Horacio Carochi, de la Compañía de Jesus
Titre traduitCompendium of the grammar of the Mexican language of Father Horacio Carochi […]
Titre courtCompendio del Arte de la lengua mexicana
Remarques sur le titreThe entire title is: Compendio del Arte de la lengua mexicana del P. Horacio Carochi, de la Compañía de Jesus, Dispuesto con brevedad, claridad, y propiedad, por el P. Ignacio de Paredes de la misma Compañía, y morador del Colegio destinado solamente para los Indios, de S. Gregorio de la Compañía de JESVS de México. Y dividido en tres partres: En la primera se trata de todo lo perteneciente à Reglas del Arte, con toda su variedad, excepciones, y anomalias; en que nada se podrâ desear, que no se halle: En la segunda se enseña la formacion de unos vocablos, de otros. Y assi con solo una voz, que se sepa, se podràn con facilidad derivar otras muchas: En la tercera se ponen los Adverbios más necessarios de la Lengua. Con todo lo qual qualquiera à poco trabajo, y en breve tiempo podrá con facilidad, propriedad, y expedicion hablar el Idioma. Y el mismo no menos afectuoso, que rendido, y reverente lo dedica, y consagra al Gloriosissimo Patriarcha San Ignacio de Loyola, Autor, y Fundador de la Compañia de Jesus.
Période|18e s.|
Type de l'ouvrageComplete grammar covering phonology, morphology. The author decided to suppress syntax, but instead he pays much attention to derivation and composition, an attempt to describe the specific typological features of a polysynthetic language like Nahuatl. Descriptive grammar, Didactic/pedagogic grammar for learners of Nahuatl. Grammar for non-native speakers of Nahuatl, novices students who were preparing themselves for the mission.
Type indexéGrammaire descriptive | Grammaire didactique | Grammaire élémentaire
Édition originale1759, Mexico: en la Imprenta de la Bibliotheca Mexicana, en frente de S. Augustín.
Édition utiliséeJohn Carter Brown Library: B759. C292c.
Volumétrie[24], 202, [2] p., [1] leaf of plates: ill.; 21 cm (in-4°). Ca. 65.000 words. Engraved ill. with S. Ignacio de Loyola "Fundador de la Compañia de Jesus" (as in Ignacio de Paredes' Promptuario manual of 1759). Title in double ornamental border; emblem of the Soc. of Jesus on tittle page verso, with citation from Horatius' De Arte Poetica.
Nombre de signes290000
Reproduction moderneModern editions: Mexico, Sociedad Mexicana de Geografía y Estadística (1902); Ed. Rufino M. González Montoya Puebla, El Escritorio (1910); Mexico, Editorial Innovación (1979); Mexico, Imprenta de la Biblioteca Mexicana (1979).
DiffusionIt is not known how many copies were made nor if this work was used outside the circles of the Jesuits.
Langues ciblesThe Mexican language (The language of the Mexicas) (Nahuatl): the “pure” variety, as the author claims (without ‘barbarisms’ or mixed registers). “Mezcla de Castellano, y Mexicano, que ni en uno, ni en otro Idioma se entiende” (Colophon)
MétalangueSpanish (Castilian)
Langue des exemplesNahuatl with Spanish translation
Sommaire de l'ouvrageDedicatoria: A mi Gloriosissimo Patriarcha S. Ignacio de Loyola, Autor, y Fundador de la Compañía de Jesus; Parecer (Domingo Joseph de la Mota); Parecer (Joseph de Paredes), Licencia del Superior Gobierno; Licencia del Ordinario; Licencia de la religión (Augustin Carta); Razon de la obra. Al lector (Ignacio Paredes); Indice.
Arte de la lengua mexicana (p. 1-202). As Carochi's work, the book has 5 chapters (“Libros”). Books 1, 2 and 4 follow closely Carochi's Arte. The books three and four have a slightly different arrangement of chapters, but the content remains the same.
Objectif de l'auteurThe aim of Paredes was to publish Horacio Carochi's grammar again (which appeared 114 years earlier, in 1645) with some changes. Paredes was asked by many people from Mexico and Puebla to prepare a new edition of Carochi which was more easy and compendious, since many found Carochi's work too elaborate (“… me han pedido, y repetidas veces instado sobre dos cosas: la primera; que yo me hiciera cargo de la reipresión de eicho Arte; la segunda, que para facilitar màs su estudio, lo compendiàra, porque ay algunos, que en viendo alguna obra, que les parece algo larga”). Paredes also stresses that with this grammar, learners can speak the pure Nahuatl, without barbarisms, mixed language (contact varieties). It was also necessary to publish a new grammar since earlier works wore difficult to get, or were too expensive (12-15 pesos, as the authors explains in the section “Razón de la obra”). In the Colophon, Paredes says that with this work the learner would be able to learn Nahuatl in six months. Ignacio Paredes does not summarize or eliminate the many chapters on the adverb, as Pérez did (173) and Tapia Zenteno (1653) who thought that the adverbs should be treated in the dictionary (Tapia 1753).
Intérêt généralThe work is a summary of Carochi's grammar. It does not contribute anything substantial to the history of linguistics, but the work certainly had success in language instruction, since most complained that Carochi's work was too elaborate (for the same reasons, many other grammarians of the 18th century wrote another grammar). There are some extended tables (as Carochi's table of the particle on (f. 43), extended in Paredes (p. 82).
Parties du discoursTraditional parts of speech system, ‘extended’ with several subcategories, such as the ‘verbo compulsivo’, ‘aplicativo’, ‘reverencial’, etc. (see the summary above), as in most works of his predecessors.
Innovations term.Carochi adopts the term ‘semipronombre’ and ‘saltillo’, ‘ligatura’ from Rincón, but is more explicit, calling them ‘semipronombres conjugativos’ (f. 14r). Other terms are: ‘Preposiciones compuestas’ (f. 20v), ‘conjugacion gerundiua’ (f. 28r), ‘Mexicanismos’ (f. 84v sq.).
Corpus illustratifThe book does not only include paradigms – which are over-represented in Galdo Guzmán's grammar –, but Carochi also gives many examples, from “buenos Auctores”, with an accompanying translation into Spanish. Among the examples, texts are chosen from the “antiguos cantares mexicanos”, huehuetlahtolli i.e. the poetic language of the ancient Nahuas, and many examples are cited from the work of Bernardino de Sahagón, the Códice florentino (León-Portilla 1983, p. xxviii-xxxi), and in addition, from other religious texts, such as the confessionarios and sermones (ibid., p. xxxiii).
Indications compl.
Influence subieCarochi mentions the work on which he modelled his grammar (Rincón, as on f. 223). In Paredes' edition, the name of Rincón has been eliminated.
Influence exercéeProbably success was for a short period during the colonial period, but the work was reprinted in the 19th century (Royal decree to forbid teaching in the indigenous languages, and the expulsion of the Jesuits).
Renvois bibliographiques→ Références
Alegre F. X. 1956; Carochi H. 1892; Carochi H. & Paredes I. 1902; Carochi H. & Paredes I. 1979; González y Montoya R. M. (éd.) 1910; Hernández de León-Portilla A. 1988; Macazaga Otoño C. (éd.) 1979; Paredes I. 1758; Paredes I. 1759; Paredes I. 1809
Rédacteur

Zwartjes, Otto

Création ou mise à jour2017-05