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[Vocabulario y notas gramaticales]

Iragorri, Juan Francisco

DomaineTraditions non-occidentales
SecteurGrammaires amérindiennes [4620]

Iragorri, Juan Francisco

Datation: 1728-1783

Juan Francisco Iragorri was born in 1728 in San Matías (Sierra de Pinos, Guadalajara, Nueva Galicia). He became orphaned when he was young. He studied in San Luis Potosí, studying Latin with José Campoy as teacher. When he was 20 years old, he moved to Mexico city where he studied Philosophy in the seminar San Ildefonso. He became a novice at the Jesuit institute of San Ignacio and for a period of two years, he taught Latin to children in Zacatecas, and after this period he studied Theology in Mexico city. When he was ordered as priest he started teaching at the college of Espírito Santo in Puebla and later in Oaxaca. The most complete bibliographical data are gathered by Orozco y Berra (1856, p. 589-590). According to Hernández (2018, p. 161) (citing Schwaller 1986), Iragorri entered the order of the Jesuits in 1751 in Tepotzotlán. As all the Jesuits, he was expelled from Mexico and went with other Jesuits to Italy, where he continued as teacher, as “procurador” and “secretario” of the Jesuit community. He lived in Bolonia for three years and later he moved to Rome, where he was called “el santo americano”, being seriously ill. The doctors advised him to leave the city and he went to a small village called “Castel Madama”, where he died in september 1783, one month after his arrival in this residence (Beristain de Souza 1883, vol. 2, p. 106-107). According to Zambrano & Gutiérrez Casillas (1977, p. 776), Iragorri wrote not only the so-called work “Vocabulario y notas gramaticales”, but also a work entitled “Práctica para hacer con perfección los Ejercicios Espirituales”, which has not been published. The sources mentioned here do not reveal anything about when and where he learned or taught Nahuatl and nothing is said about his authorship of this manuscript, or when, by whom or why this anonymous work has been ascribed to him.

Titre de l'ouvrage[Vocabulario y notas gramaticales]
Titre traduit[Vocabulary and grammatical notes]
Titre court[Vocabulario y notas gramaticales]
Remarques sur le titreAccording to the catalogue of the Newberry Library, the title is “Vocabulario y notas gramaticales”. The original Ms does not have a title page. In Beristain, who has seen the manuscript when it was still housed at the University Library of Mexico City) we find a slightly different title: “Vocabularios y diálogos mexicanos” (Schwaller, 1986, p. 330, as in Beristain de Souza 1883, p. 106-107, as in Viñaza (1892, n° 1038). In fact, the work does not contain any dialogues, but the final section is more of a phrase book with examples derived from other grammars.
Période|18e s.|
Type de l'ouvrageIragorri’s manuscript does not contain an introduction to phonology/ orthography, as is usual in this period. No diacritics are used on the vowels, and at the end of the grammar, there is no section devoted to prosody, as often occurs in this period. Schwaller (1987, p. 330) observes the following: “Rather than being a narrative exposition on the structure of the Aztec language, Iragorri composed a rather extended vocabulary. Particles and words are listed according to grammatical function ad glossed in Spanish”.
Type indexéLexique | Grammaire descriptive | Grammaire didactique | Grammaire élémentaire
Édition originaleThe exact date is unknown. According to Niederehe (2005, p. 223, n° 1062), it was completed around 1780, in Hernández we find ca 1760 and in Schwaller, “probably before 1767”, referring to Zambrano, [i.e. in fact Gutiérrez Casillas, the author of the fifth volume of Diccionario bio-bibliográfico de la Compañía de Jesús en México (1977, p. 775-776).
Édition utiliséeAyer MS 1480
Volumétrie82 p. [59 ff.] 21 cm.
Nombre de signes140000
Reproduction moderneNo recent editions.
DiffusionAccording to Beristain de Souza (1883, p. 107), there also exists a copy in the University Library of Mexico City and, according to Schwaller (1986, p. 330), it seems that the manuscript was prepared for being printed.
Langues ciblesNahuatl (Uto-Aztèque)
MétalangueSpanish (Castilian). In the section where the prepositions appear (vocabulary), the Nahuatl entries are translated often into Latin and Spanish.
Langue des exemplesNahuatl
Sommaire de l'ouvrage[no title, no prologue]. The work starts immediately with word lists Nahuatl-Spanish, arranged according to parts of speech, starting with the undeclinable parts of speech (prepositions excluded, since they appear later in the vocabulary as a separate section):
[Vocabulario] (glossaries): Adverbios de lugar, de tiempo, de afirmar, negar y dudar, otros varios, conjunciones, interjecciones. The following section (no chapter/ section titles) is a vocabulary Nahuatl-Spanish, arranged thematically, but not alphabetically: Elementos, metales, derivados de tepuztli, partes del hombre, animales, aves, parentescos, colores, nombres usuales, vocablos de varias significaciones, preposiciones, los que doblan el plural (word list Nahuatl-Spanish with reduplicated plural forms), verbos (13r-16v); some folios are missing.
Varios preceptos (grammatical notes, unsystematically arranged, starting with “pretéritos irregulares”, followed by pasivos, impersonales, nombres verbales, neutros, nombres derivados de nombres, de los moradores de lugar, de verbos que se derivan de nombres, compulsivos, aplicativos (29), reverenciales, derivativos, interjecciones, algunas partículas, de los comparativos.
Frases de la lengua Mexicana (the ink of this title is less clear. The first column has the title (written in more clear ink): “Del arte del R.P. Ant[onio], and again in less clear ink: Vasq[ue]s Gastelú (4 fol.).
Frases del arte del P. Caroch .
Objectif de l'auteurSince the work has no prologue, no explicit didactic goals are given. Given the nature of the manuscript, the author aimed at giving a more practical and less voluminous work than Carochi. The Compendium of Carochi made by Paredes was possibly too detailed still, and maybe for this reason Iragorri extracted some examples from Carochi he found most illustrative. It is not known if this work was made for personal use, or if he planned to have it published, aiming at a larger public. If he really aimed at having this work published, Iragorri’s pedagogical objectives are comparable with those of other authors in the New World.
Intérêt généralFor teaching and learning, it was less desirable that the three pillars were composed as separate works, grammar, vocabulary and religious texts. As Quintana did for his Mixe didactic “programme”, eclectic works were preferred. Iragorri decided to start with word lists, followed by some grammatical rules, not a full-fledged Arte and no complete religious texts are appended, but sample phrases taken from the grammars of Vázquez Gastelú and Carochi. If he did not compile this work for its own use, selecting some phrases which he found relevant, the sample phrases were integrated in a less strictly organised framework, as others did in South America (for instance, the Phrases selectas derived from the Tesoro of Ruiz de Montoya, compiled by Blas Pretovio, anagram of Pablo Restivo) (Chamorro 2014).
Parties du discoursIn the vocabulary Nahuatl-Spanish, words are arranged according to parts of speech. The order is different from what we usually find in missionary grammars, since it starts with adverbs, followed by conjunctions and interjections (1r-3v). On folio 4r, nouns are given, arranged thematically (elements, metals, body parts, etc.), words with various meanings (“vocablos de varias significaciones”), prepositions, and finally, the verbs. The grammatical section entitled “varios preceptos” is not arranged according to the parts of speech and rules are given quite unsystematically.
Innovations term.No terminological innovations.
Corpus illustratifNahuatl sample phrases are included as a separate final section.
Indications compl.
Influence subieSchwaller (1987, p. 330): Iragorri borrowed heavily from Carochi, and another earlier Nahuatl scholar Antonio Vázquez Gastelú, including whole sections of phrases taken from their works. The author mentions these two names explicitly in his “phrase book”. The examples are indeed taken from these authors, as the example on f. 2v, second column, “dentro del vientre encarnó nuestro Señor Jesu Christo”, which has been taken literally from Vázquez Gastelú, not from the first edition where this example has not been included, but in all later editions (1693 f. 11r-v; 1716, f. 11v). In the grammatical section (“varios preceptos”) and the word lists, no authors are mentioned by name, but it is obvious, as in the case of the color names, that Iragorri includes almost exactly the same colors as Vázquez Gastelú, although in a slightly different order. After a brief comparison I concluded that the grammatical section has not been taken verbatim from Vázquez Gastelú, except some lists, such as the names of colours, but it is obvious that the phrases are taken from Carochi. The grammatical rules are simplified rules mostly taken from Carochi (the author seems not to have used Vázquez Gastelú, as for instance his treatment of “reverenciales”, “verbos compulsivos”, “aplicativos”, and “frecuentativos”). The section which is found on the first folios devoted to adverbs seems to be taken from Carochi. Iragorri copied the entries from the grammar, and left out all the details from Carochi, and compiled his own word list in such a manner.
Influence exercéeNo evidence for any influence on others.
Renvois bibliographiques→ Références
Beristáin y Souza J. M. 1883; Carochi H. 1892; Chamorro G. 2014; Hernández E. 2018; Iragorri J. F. 1780; Muñoz y Manzano (Conde de la Viñaza) C. 1892; Niederehe H.-J. 2005; Orozco y Berra M. 1856; Paredes I. 1759; Schwaller J. F. 1986; Vázquez Gastelú A. 1689; Zambrano F. & Gutiérrez Casillas J. 1977 {p. 775-776}

Zwartjes, Otto

Création ou mise à jour2019-11