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Artes de la lenguas serrana y del valle

Reyes, Gaspar de los

DomaineTraditions non-occidentales
SecteurGrammaires amérindiennes [4669]
Liens

Biblioteca digital AECID (éd. 1891)

Auteur(s)

Reyes, Gaspar de los

Datation: 1655-1706

Not much is known about Gaspar de los Reyes (O.P.), but his name is mentioned in relation to a military conflict following the tragedy of the martyrs of Cajonos. It has been documented that Juan Bautista and Jacinto de los Ángeles, both indigenous Zapotec-speeking members of the “Vicaría de S. Francisco Cajonos” - where Gaspar de los Reyes worked as “cura” - were martyrized by the indigenous population on 14 september 1700 (“Mártires de Cajonos”). Juan Bautista and Jacinto de los Ángeles had disturbed a ritual of the locals and as “fiscales” they confiscated their possessions. It is reported that Gaspar de los Reyes was one of the persons who destroyed their possessions. After this confiscation, an indigenous rebellion was initiated and the convent, where Gaspar de los Reyes and other armed Spaniards had entrenched themselves, was attacked. In this conflict, several indigenous people were killed. The rebellion was stopped when 80 soldiers of the army of Villa Alta came to Cajonos on september 16th, and they destroyed the houses of the betrayers (Source) and see also: Piazza (2008). Juan Bautista and Jacinto de los Ángeles were marginalised after their death by the recently appointed new “alcalde mayor”. It is remarkable that the indigenous population was not punished and that it took centuries before the two martyrs were beatified. The beatification took place in 2002 in the Basílica de Guadalupe in Mexico City on the occasion of Pope John Paul’s II visit to Mexico. See for more details.
Gaspar de los Reyes’ Artes de la lenguas serrana y del valle were finished in 1704, although the printed version probably never appeared, but rather remained in a stage of proofs. The work appeared for the first time in the 19th century, edited by Francisco Belmar (1859-1926). Belmar’s edition, reproduces the original work, probably the proofs, since it contains an enormous amount of printing and spelling errors. In the prologue of the Artes Gaspar de los Reyes informs his readers that he also wishes to compile a dictionary, but we do not have any report that this ever was completed or published.

Titre de l'ouvrageArtes de la lenguas serrana y del valle careados y numeradas sus reglas al margen; para la nota de su similitud y diferencia: dispuestos y ordenados por el R.P. Pr. F. Fr. Gaspar de los Reyes
Titre traduitGrammars of the [Zapotec] language of the mountains and Valley Zapotec, compared with each other and with numbered rules in the margin in order to note their similarities and differences
Titre courtArtes de la lenguas serrana y del valle
Remarques sur le titreIn the title (et passim) ‘serrana’ is spelled as ‘cerrana’. The 1891 edition appeared under a different title: Gramatica de las lemguas [sic] Zapoteca-serrana y Zapoteca del Valle por Fr. Gaspar de los Reyes. Mandado imprimir por disposición del Sr. General Gregorio Chávez, Gobernador Constitucional del Estado de Oaxaca, Lic. Agustín Canseco, secretarop del Gobierno del mismo. Dirigida la impresión, por el Lic. Francisco Belmar.
Période|18e s.|
Type de l'ouvrageDescriptive grammar, Didactic/pedagogic grammar, contrastive grammar comparing two varieties of Zapotec. The texts of the two Artes are mostly identical, save for the examples they give, since they represent either the variety of the Valley, or the one from the Mountains respectively. There is no separate section devoted to syntax, but some observations are included regarding ambiguities (nouns are undeclinable, so this has the consequence that the “agent and the patient can be confused”). Nevertheless, the general rule is that the agent comes before the verb and the patient following the verb (p. 22).
Type indexéGrammaire contrastive | Grammaire descriptive | Grammaire didactique | Grammaire élémentaire
Édition originale1891, éd. Francisco Belmar, Oaxaca, Imprenta del Estado, á cargo de Ignacio Candiani, 1891. (500 copies were printed). First published in 1700, (Comisario del Santo Officio), which is the year mentioned on the title page, but in the colophon of the first section, the Arte of Northern Zapotec, we can read that the grammar was completed in June 14th, 1704.
Édition utiliséeDigital copy Biblioteca Nacional de España, H-A 15429.
Volumétrie100 p.; 22 cm.
Nombre de signes95000
Reproduction moderneNo recent editions.
DiffusionUnknown.
Langues ciblesZapotec (Zapotecan, Otomanguean).
The glottonym Zapotec is a Nahuatl exonym, derived from tzapotl (‘zapote’) + -tlan (place) (place where there are abundant fruits). There are two target varieties of Zapotec described by Gaspar de los Reyes: lengua serrana [cerrana] and lengua del valle. The author explicitly mentions the variety spoken in Cajonos (p.17) (Northern Zapotec, or “lengua zaapoteca cerrana”)
MétalangueZapotec (Zapotecan, Otomanguean). The glottonym Zapotec is a Nahuatl exonym, derived from tzapotl (‘zapote’) + -tlan (place) (place where there are abundant fruits). There are two target varieties of Zapotec described by Gaspar de los Reyes: lengua serrana [cerrana] and lengua del valle. The author explicitly mentions the variety spoken in Cajonos (p.17) (Northern Zapotec, or “lengua zaapoteca cerrana”)
Langue des exemplesZapotec (two varieties)
Sommaire de l'ouvrageAuto de remisión de examen de esta obra (Joseph Lopez); Aprovacion (Joseph de Escovar); Aprovación (Joseph Cardona, Alonzo de Bargas); Prólogo al lector y motivos de esta obra (p. 7-11).
Arte en lengua zaapoteca cerrana; careada con el arte del valle para la nota de su similitud y diferencia (13-60). Cap. 1. Del nombre (13-14); Del nombre sustantivo (14); Del nombre adjetivo (14), Del pronombre (15); Ejemplo de nombres sustantivos con pronombre (15); Ejemplo de nombres adjetivos con pronombre (16); Ejemplo de pronombres derivativos (16); Ejemplo en verbo con pronombre (16-18); Pronombres derivativos (18-19); De los relativos (19-20; De los nombres comparativos (20); De los superlativos; Proposiciones de acusativo (Latin-Zapotec, in alphatebical order) (21); Proposiciones de ablativo (21-22); Interjecciones (22); Conjunciones (22-23); Numerales (23-25); FIN.
Del verbo (25). Capítulo primero [no specific title] (25-26); Verbos activos, primera conjugación (25-33), indicativo, tiempo presente, pretérito imperfecto, pretérito perfecto, pretérito pluscuamperfecto; futuro imperfecto; futuro perfecto, imperativo, optativo o subjuntivo (presente, pretérito imperfecto, pretérito perfecto, pretérito pluscuamperfecto, infinitivo, pluscuamperfecto, futuro perfecto gerundio de genitivo, gerundio de acusativo gerundio de ablativo, participio de presente, participio de pretérito, participio de futuro en -rus, participio de futuro en -dus, verbos potenciales (33-34), verbales (34); segunda especie de verbales (34); tercera especie de verbales (35); primera clase (35-360); segunda clase (36); tercera clase (36-37); cuarta clase (37); quinta clase (37-38), verbos impersonales (39); verbos neutros (39); reiterativos (39); verbos compulsivos (39-40); del adverbio (41-42). FINIS. Segunda conjugación de Re-Be-Ge- (42-46); indicativo presente, pretérito imperfecto; pretérito perfecto; pretérito pluscuamperfecto; futuro imperfecto; futuro perfecto; imperativo; optativo, o subjuntivo; pretérito imperfecto; pretérito perfecto; pretérito pluscuamperfecto, infinitivo; pluscuamperfecto; futuro perfecto; gerundio de genitivo; gerundio de acusativo; gerundio de ablativo; participio de presente; participio de pretérito; participio de futuro en -rus; participio de futuro en -dus, voz de potencialidad, verbos irregulares (45); nombres verbales en ôr (45-46). FINIS 2a conjugationis. Tercera conjugación (same tenses, modes, etc.) (46-45), Verbos pasivos (50-51); Regla primera –Baa, 2a regla Be, 3a regla , 4a regla Goo, 5a regla Za, 6a regla Ze, 7a regla Zi. 8a regla Zoo, 9a regla Gaa, 10a regla Gue, 11a regla Gui, 12 regla ââ. Cuarta conjugación Ro-Be-Go. (same tenses, modes) (56-60).
Fin del Arte Zaapoteco Cerrano.

Proemivm Illmo Acrme Princeps (proemium in Latin).
Arte en lengua Zaapoteca del Valle Careada con el arte, serrano [written as ‘cerrano’] para la nota de su similitud y diferencia. (63-100). Capítulo primero del nombre (63-64); Del nombre adjetivo (64); Del pronombre (64-65); Ejemplo de nombres sustantivos, con pronombre (65); Ejemplo en nombres adjetivos (65); Ejemplo en nombres derivativos (65); Ejemplo de verbos con pronombre (65-66); Pronombres derivativos (66-67); De los relativos (67); De los nombres comparativos (68); De los Superativos (68); Preposiciones de acusativo (Latin-Zapotec, arranged alphabetically) (68-69); Preposiciones de ablativo (70); Interjecciones (70); Conjunciones (70-71); Numerales (71-72); Del verbo, Capítulo primero (72); Verbos activos, primera conjugación (73-86); Del adverbio (87-88); Segunda conjugación (88-92); Tercera conjugación (92-101); Cuarta Conjugación (101-100 [sic] = 104). Colophon: Et hoc sit ad Laudem et Gloriam omnipotentis Dei et Dei pare Marie Virginis et omnium sanctorum et sanctarum Dei, &a.
Objectif de l'auteurThe aim was to publish two Artes in order to describe “su similitud y diferencia”. The paragraphs are numbered, and the same numbers are maintained in the parallel grammar of the other variety of Zapotec.
Intérêt généralGaspar de los Reyes is not the only author who compares two varieties of the same language. In the history of Náhuatl grammars we find grammars describing different varieties, such as the one of Jalisco, but there is no systematic comparison between the two varieties of Nahuatl. Manuel Pérez’s grammar devotes a considerable amount of sections to the variety spoken in the region he calles “Tierra Caliente”, but all his observations are embedded in one grammar describing the standard Náhuatl of the central valley, as we see in the title, where the author refers to one language (Arte de el idioma mexicano). Gaspar de los Reyes decided to publish two parallel works describing the two varieties. (he is not the only missionary grammarian to do so; Luis de Valdivia compiled parallel grammars of Millcayac and Allentiac, but different from Gaspar de los Reyes, the did not have the aim to present these texts as a comparative study; both works are independent from each other). In the Zapotec territories, Gaspar de los Reyes was not the only to describe Northern Zapotec. Francisco Pacheco de Silva’s doctrinal texts are written in the Nexitzo Zapotec variety (Pacheco de Silva (1687, reprint 1689, 1752 and 1882). Gaspar de los Reyes’ work is also of interest, since it contains his pedagogical principles regarding second language acquisition and his target groups. In order to learn to speak with perfection (“Hablar con perfección”), an Arte is required, as one cannot speak Latin with perfection, without Nebrija’s Arte. Gaspar de los Reyes also distinguishes between two categories of native speakers, “formal natives” (“maternos formales”) and “accidental” (“maternos accidentales”). “Materno formal” refers to the speakers who are raised among the indigenous population, without any contact with another language (“el que fuere criado por los mismos indios, sin oír otro idioma”). “Materno accidental” refers to those people who are raised by the Spanish Fathers, in the communities of the indigenous people, where they have heard and “accidentally” learned the words of the Indians “el que es criado por sus Padres Españoles, en Pueblos de Indios, donde accidentalmente oyen y aprenden los vocablos de los indios”. The “maternos formales” are able to speak the indigenous language with perfection (“con perfección y con toda propiedad”). The “accidentales” speak with imperfections (“imperfecciones e impropriedades”). There is no Creole (“Criollo de la Villa alta, y de otras Villas”) who is not able to speak the indigenous language, but they speak with imperfections. The Arte as a learning tool is not sufficient in order to teach the language, but it only gives the learner “Rules” which enable him to learn to speak the language with perfection (“El arte no enseña lengua; sino que da Reglas para hablar con perfección la lengua”). In order to properly learn the language, the learner needs a vocabulary, explaining the exact meaning in order to learn how to “play” with employing these rules “y porque para saber lengua, has menester copia de vocablos y significados para jugarlos y dirigirlos segun estas Reglas”. Another interesting contribution of Gaspar de los Reyes is the sections devoted to the “reverenciales” (p. 17) and the inclusive/ exclusive pronouns, the latter is a section which had not been derived from Córdova. Gaspar de los Reyes observes that in Zapotec exclusive and inclusive pronouns can be used interchangeably, except when addressing God (Tavárez 2018). Gaspar de los Reyes also sometimes gives details related to metaphorical (p. 71), humourous speech (“pláticas jocosas”), or even dishonest or womanish usage (deshonesto o mugeriego”) (p. 23). Gaspar de los Reyes compares Zapotec with Latin. When he deals with the “supinum” and the “ablativus absolutus”, he explains that in Zapotec these constructions are “Romanised” (the verb “romancear”), which means that they have to be translated by circumlocutions, as the Romance equivalents of these Latin non-finite forms (cf. Zwartjes 2007).
Parties du discoursNombre, pronombre, verbo, participio, preposición, adverbio, interjección, conjunción (p. 13 and 63).
Innovations term.Voz de potencialidad (also in the anonymous Arte, published by Peñafiel) (1887, p. 64). Participios potenciales (p. 20). Verbos potenciales (p. 33). Copulativo parcial, copulativo absoluto (p. 17). Verbo de asistencia.
Corpus illustratifGaspar de los Reyes frequently gives examples from a Doctrina and “confesionarios” which circulated at the time in Cajonos, without mentioning titles or authors.
Indications compl.
Influence subieIn his prologue, Gaspar de los Reyes observes that his work describes and compares two different varieties of Zapotec. The “idioma del valle” (also spelled as “balle”), and the idioma de la Sierra (spelled as cerrana, or “lengua Cerrana”; these spellings with {c} are rather consistent). Gaspar de los Reyes mentions his sources for the data of both varieties. For the variety of the valley, Gaspar de los Reyes mentions the works of Juan de Córdova and Jerónimo Moreno, of which the latter work seems to have been lost. For the variety of the mountains (Northern Zapotec, spoken in Cajonos), Gaspar de los Reyes mentions the “arte” and “documentos” which he had used when he learned the language himself, composed by his “masters” Fray Gonzalo and Fray Bartolomé de Alcántara. The existing works describing both varieties had their own shortcomings, according to the author. He considers the work of Córdoba “diffuse”, and his grammar had to be “reduced”, whereas the work on Northern Zapotec had to be extended, since they were too brief. The Arte of Antonio de Nebrija is also mentioned in the prologue (p. 8). In addition, Gaspar de los Reyes mentions a certain Juan de Noval. In the grammar we find a great number of references Juan de Córdova’s Arte (p. 14, 23, 24, 28, 29, 32, 40, 50, 64, 70, 71, 74, 76, 86, 87). Gaspar de los Reyes also gives the exact folio numbers when he cites Córdova, but it is remarkable that these folio numbers often do not correspond with the original 1578 edition of his Arte.
Influence exercéeThe work does not seem to have had a great impact. In Peñafiel (1887), the work even is not mentioned.
Renvois bibliographiques→ Références
Belmar F. (éd.) 1891; Cruz V. de la 2018; Pacheco de Silva F. 1687; Peñafiel A. (éd.) 1887; Piazza R. 2008; Smith-Stark T. C. 2010; Tavárez D. 2018; Zwartjes O. 2007
Rédacteur

Zwartjes, Otto

Création ou mise à jour2018-09