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Arte en lengua mixteca

Reyes, Antonio de los

DomaineTraditions non-occidentales
SecteurGrammaires amérindiennes [4673]

Primeros Libros de las Américas (éd. 1593)

Internet Archive (3e éd. 1888)


Reyes, Antonio de los

Datation: ca 1520-1603

Antonio de los Reyes was born in Toro in the province of Zamora, Castilla y León (probably between 1520 and 1530). His mother was from Toro, but his father was German. In his youth he served Marqués de Alcañices and later studied at the University of Salamanca. He was an ordered priest of the Order of the Dominicans (O.P.) in the convent of San Esteban. In 1555 he departed to New Spain (Terraciano 2001, p. 69). He was assigned in 1558 to Teposcolula where he studied Mixtec with Cabrera and Hernández. Reyes served as vicar of Teposcolula between 1560 and 1570 in Tlaxiaco. In the 80’s he was vicar in Coixtlahuaca. He was asked to produce both a vocabulary and grammar in 1587, but he may have requested the assistance of fray Francisco de Alvarado, vicar of Tamaçulapa, who finally completed the Vocabulario, which was printed the same year as Reyes’s Arte by the same publisher, Pedro Balli (Terraciano ibid.). Antonio de los Reyes wrote one of the paratexts (“aprobación”) of Alvarado’s Spanish-Mixtec dictionary. De los Reyes was also the author of another work, entitled Confessonario mui copioso en lengua misteca y castellana, which is included in the anonymous manuscripts of the Arte (f. 133r-144v). The Confessonario in the anonymous work Arte de la lengua misteca is written by de los Reyes, since it has his signature at the end (f. 144v), although the rest of the anonymous Arte is written by another hand (see also Tsutsumi Hernández 2008, p. 120). In around 1600, he lived in the Convento of the Dominicans in Oaxaca, but later he returned to Teposcolula where he died November 8th, 1603 (Swanton 2017). De los Reyes knew several different varieties of Mixtec.

Titre de l'ouvrageArte en lengua mixteca
Titre traduitGrammar in the Mixtec language
Titre courtArte en lengua mixteca
Remarques sur le titreComplete title: Arte en lengua mixteca, compuesta por el Padre Fray Antonio de los Reyes, de la Orde[n] de Predicadores, Vicario de Tepuzculula. The Mixtec variety is specified in the title of the first chapter: Comiença el arte de la lengua mixteca, conforma a lo que se habla en Tepuzculula (here begins the grammar of the Mixtec language, as it is spoken in Tepuzculula).
Période|16e s.|
Type de l'ouvrageGrammar covering phonology (although this section is relatively brief), morphology (mainly the parts of speech). Descriptive grammar, Didactic / pedagogic grammar for learners of Mixtec. Grammar for non-native speakers of Mixtec, novices who were preparing themselves for the mission. The grammar also contains a section entitled “diferentes modos de hablar” (including several varieties) and some word lists, containing body parts, kinship terms and toponyms in several languages and varieties.
Type indexéGrammaire descriptive | Grammaire didactique | Grammaire élémentaire
Édition originale1593, Mexico, Pedro Balli.
Four original copies have survived: Nettie Lee Benson Collection, University of Texas, Austin (Rare books, GZZ IC103), National Library of France (Paris, Réserve, p. X. 252); Howard-Tilton collection of the University of Tulane (Rare miniature, 497.27R457) and “Fondo Juan José Arreola” (Biblioteca Pública de Guadalajara). According to Tsutsumi Hernández (2008, p. 133) “Lenguas indígenas”, n° 83”, but in the catalogue it appears as n° 89 (Martínez Corona 2007, p. 300).
Édition utilisée1593, Mexico, Pedro Balli.
VolumétrieAccording to the “Colección de Lenguas Indígenas” (Biblioteca Pública del Estado de Jalisco Juan José Arreola, Universidad de Guadalajara, Jalisco), n° 89: the physical description is: [11], 68 ; in-8° (15cm). The copy from the Benson Library, which we have used for this entry, has the following measures: 12, 68 leaves; 14 cm. The 1750 edition printed in Puebla contains 163 pages (with 13 unnumbered folios).
Nombre de signes108000
Reproduction moderneVanderbilt University Publications in Anthropology, 14. Nashville (facsimile of the 1890 Charencey edition, 1976.
DiffusionSecond edition 1750 (Puebla: viuda de Miguel Ortega), one copy is housed in the “Biblioteca Palafoxiana in Puebla”, Mexico (27993) and another in the British Library (003081594). A third edition 1888 (éd. H. de Charencey), reprinted as separata in 1890 (Paris: Klincksieck). See for more details about the Charancey edition Swanton 2008, p. 135-144). Tsutsumi Hernández (2008, p. 120) mentions two manuscript versions of the Arte. The first is described as an ideography by Tsutsumi Hernández (2008, p. 123) and is housed in the “Fondo Lafragua de la Biblioteca de la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla” (n° 11805) and is not complete. The second is a “copia autógrafa”, housed in the Fondo Salvador Ugarte de la Biblioteca Cervantina del Tecnológico de Monterrey, which is available on-line (Tecnológico de Monterrey, ms. anonyme 16e s.). Since it is obvious that the Anonymous Monterrey Ms is quite different from the printed 1593 version, it will be described in a separate article.
Langues ciblesMixtec (Mixtecan subfamily, Otomanguean).
The glottonym Mixtec is derived from the Náhuatl exonym mixtecatl which means “people of the place of the clouds”. Some current endonyms are Ñudzavui or Dzaha Dzavui. According to de los Reyes, the Mixtec as it was spoken in Tepuzculula (today spelled as Teposcolula) and Yanguitlan are the most important varieties and are considered as “roots” (raizes) of all the other varieties. De los Reyes’ Arte also gives an overview of other Mixtecan languages or varieties of Mixtec. Apart from the language of the Chuchones - spoken in Cuixtlahuac, Texupa and Temaczulapa, where speakers of Mixtec also live, the author mentions the Cuicatlec and Cuiquila languages. De los Reyes describes the variety spoken in Teposcolula, which is the closest to the one which was spoken by the “señores” who took over the power from the “señores de Apuala”. These “naturales” spoke the original Mixtec with all its “frasis y modos”, although over the course of time, through marriages and victories, the language came into contact with other varieties, and this explains why de los Reyes decided to pay much attention to the different varieties of Mixtec in his Arte (“differentes modos de hablar”). According to de los Reyes, even in the same community, different varieties were spoken, although all belong to the same Mixtec language. The Teposcolula variety was considered the most prestigious one and is the most commonly used and/ or understood in other regions. It is considered the most “universal” and “clear” variety (“es mas universal y clara y que mejor se entiende en toda la Mixteca”), in particular as it was spoken by elder people who generally know more about the language (“como oy dia la hablan los viejos que tienen mas noticia de la lengua”) (cited from the ‘Prologue’, no numbered pages). The prologue is in fact a detailed overview of the most important varieties. “La mixteca baja”, the spoken varieties of the communities of Tilantongo, Mictlantongo, Tematzulapa and others. Differences (phonological, morphological and lexical) are discussed, and according to de los Reyes, women (in Yanguitlan) have their own speaking manners (Arte f. 12v). For missionaries’ interest in recording local varieties generally, see also Zwartjes (2000)
MétalangueSpanish (Castellano). Most titles of paragraphs and other subsections are in Spanish, whereas the anonymous copy (Ms Monterrey) has most titles in Latin
Langue des exemplesMixtec. The list of toponyms is in Nahuatl - variety of Teposcolula – Nahuatl, “Mixteca baxa”, “Costa”, “Çapoteca”, “Mexicana” (=Nahuatl)
Sommaire de l'ouvrage[Dedicatoria]. Lvys de Velasco, [Dedicatoria] Seruan Ribero, [Dedicatoria] Pablo Rodrigues, Pascual de la Anunciacion, [Dedicatoria] Antonio de los Reyes, Prólogo (14 unnumbered folios), Antonio de los Reyes.
Comienza el arte de la lengua Mixteca conforme a lo que se habla en Tepuzculula. Preámbulo, de la Ortografía, y del modo de hablar y escribir esta lengua (f. 1r-2v); Cap. 1: de las partes de la oración (2v-4r); Cap. 2: de los nombres en particular (4v-9v); Cap. 3: de los pronombres (10r-14r); Cap. 4: de las particulas o silábicas adjecciones relativas (14r-16r); Cap. 5: de los verbos (16r-18v); Cap. 6: de los verbos activos que no lo son de naturaleza sino por composición desta sílaba dza (18v-21r); Cap. 7: del verbo pasivo (21r-22r); Cap. 8: de los verbos neutros (22r-v); Cap. 9: de los verbos neutros pasivos (22v-23r); Cap. 10: de los primitivos y derivativos (23r-25v); Cap. 11: de los verbos simples, y compuestos (26r-27r); Cap. 12: de otros verbos compuestos con algunas particulares dicciones que usan mucho (27r-29v); Cap. 13: de otros muchos verbos que se hallan compuestos unos con otros (29v-34r); Cap. 14: de algunas preposiciones, y adverbios que se componen con verbos, y como (34r-36r); Cap. 15: de algunos verbos particulares, que para un mismo significado hay diferentes verbos (36r-37v); Cap. 16: de la conjugación de los verbos (37v-41r): Cap. 17: de otros verbos que teniendo un mismo presente se diferencian en el f[uturo] para diversos significados (41v-43r); Cap. 18: de otros verbos equivocos que sin diferenciar en el futuro, ni otro tiempo, tienen diversos sentidos (43r-45v); Cap. 19: de la conjugación de los verbos (45v-48r); Cap. 20: del verbo sum, es, fui (48r-50r): Cap. 21: de las preposiciones (50v-52r); Cap. 22: de los adverbios (numerales, temporales, locales, negativos, afirmativos, demostrativos, ordinativos, interrogativos, dubitativos, vocativos, discretivos, congregativos, hortativos, intensivos, remisivos, comparativos, superlativos, similativos, exclusivos) (52r-55v); Cap. 23: de las interjecciones (55v-56r); Cap. 24: de las conjunciones (56r-57v); Cap. 25: de los nombres y verbos reverenciales de que se usan los naturales con los grandes Señores, o haziendo relación de ellos (word list arranged alphabetically Spanish-Mixtec) (57v-61r); Cap. 26: de todas las partes del cuerpo humano, que por quitar de trabajo de buscar los vocablos en el Vocabulario se ponen aqui por si juntas (Alphabetically arranged Spanish-Mixtec word list, containing 123 entries) (61v-64r): Cap. 27: de los nombres de parentesco, de afinidad y consanguinidad (alphabetically arranged Spanish-Mixtec, containing 58 entries) (64r-65v); Cap. 28: de los nombres de los pueblos de que mas noticia se tiene en esta Nueva España, vueltos en lengua Mixteca, para necesidades se ofrecen cada día de saberlos (Mixteca, Mixteca baxa, Costa, Pueblos de la parte de Teutila, Çapoteca, Mexicano) (66r-68v). Colofón: Laus Deo, En Mexico. En casa de Pedro Balli, Año de 1593 (68v). The edition of Charencey also has a “Table of Contents” (entitled “Tabulas”), not included in the original edition.
Objectif de l'auteurThe author wrote a detailed overview of dialectal varieties in his prologue, but no explicit didactic principles are exposed.
Intérêt généralAccording to Smith-Stark (2005, p. 25), Antonio de los Reyes attempts to talk about tone (Reyes 1593, p. 54) (i.e. the page in the Vander Bilt edition, which corresponds to f. 43r-v of the original edition). “The evidence is extremely ambiguous and sporadic, but it appears that the Dominicans [Reyes and Alvarado, OZ] might have recognised three tones: acute (written with an acute accent), plain (unmarked), and grave (written with a grave accent)”. The section to which Smith-Stark refers is the chapter entitled “De otros verbos equivocos, que sin diferenciar en el futuro, ni otro tiempo, tienen diversos sentidos” where the example is given of the homographs (according to the printed edition of 1593) Yocasundi which can be pronounced with three different tones: “Lo boz baxa” with the meaning “to laugh” (“reirse”), “mas alta”, which means “to cry” (“llorar”), and finally, “media voce” (“traer al cuello como cuentas y hazer ruido el viento”). In Alvarado’s Vocabulario the three homographs are included, and no diacritics are used in order to differentiate between them (Alvarado 1593, resp. f. 180v, f. 141v and f. 197v). In the long list of “equivocal verbs”, this is the only case where de los Reyes explains the difference using terms related to “tones”. Not much is explained in the opening section on pronunciation. De los Reyes refers to the Vocabulario in case a curious user wants to know more about accents, but in Alvarado’s dictionary, which appeared the same year as de los Reyes’ Arte, there is no introductory section in which the accents are explained. Different from most other missionary grammars of this period, a general geographical description is given of the Mixtec region. The names of the regions are also given in Mixtec, accompanied with etymologies. Without any shadow of a doubt, this grammar devotes more attention to dialectal varieties than any other missionary grammar written during the sixteenth century, and dialectal studies and comparisons between several varieties generally appear later (as Manuel Pérez’s grammar of Nahuatl (1713) and Gaspar de los Reyes “twin” grammars of two varieties of Zapotec (1700) (one exception is the work of Bertonio, who comments on several varieties of Aymara in the first decade of the 17th century). The same year the dictionary of his colleague Francisco de Alvarado appeared, in which he decided not to include regional varieties.
Regarding orthography and phonology, it is noteworthy that Reyes and Alvarado use the digraph {dz} to represent [ð] (Smith-Stark 2005: 19). According to Smith-Stark, “In striking contrast to the success of the Franciscans with Otomí, the Dominicans in Oaxaca, friars Antonio de los Reyes and Francisco de Alvarado did not register the nasalized vowels of Mixtec in a systematic way. In fact, they were only registered in a couple of special circumstances, A /t/ followed by a nasalized vowel was written as {tn}, a representation of the allophone [tn] found in this context. A /k/ followed by a nasalised /ų/ was written using the letter {q} alone as in {duq}, representing /ndukų/” (Smith-Stark 2005, p. 19-20). Swanton (2008) points to another important contribution of de los Reyes: Chapter 25, entitled “De los nombres, y verbos reverenciales de que usan los naturales con los grandes Señores, o haciendo relación de ellos” is dedicated to conventionalized lexical metaphors and special expressions, conventionalized verbal constructions, euphemisms, “difrasismos” (“evoking a metonymic referent for paired constructions”), solemn speech.
Parties du discoursAccording to de los Reyes, the language has all the eight parts of speech as in Latin and all the other ‘perfect’ languages (“como en el latin y en las de mas lenguas perfectas”). Nombre, pronombre, verbo, participio, preposición, adverbio, interjección, conjunción (4). There are two types of “articles” (not classified as a part of speech), the “zero-article” which is “understood”, because it is “not expressed” or “inserted” in the noun (“sub intellect que no se espresso sino que esta inserta en el nombre”), and the other is the addition of the word dzevui, translated as “el mismo”, although it is not used frequently by the “naturales”, according to de los Reyes.
Sometimes, definitions are given of the part of speech in question, and de los Reyes often gives a less common definition, such as for the verb: “Verbo es una parte de la oración que es como ánima y forma de la misma oración, que le da ser y vida” (f. 16r) (“The verb is a part of speech which is as the soul and form of the sentence itself, giving it essence and life”).
Innovations term.Silábicas (sillabicas) adjeciones relativas (17) Zwartjes (1998). Verbo auxiliar (62). He most likely did not invent this term, but it is not commonly used in this early period in the New World.
Corpus illustratifParadigms (conjugations) in Mixtec-Spanish. The final sections contain more phrases and linguistic structures. Probably, learners also used de los Reyes’ “Confesonario”, which has not been printed, but which appears in the anonymous Monterrey Ms. There, the user could find Mixtec phrases with accompanying Spanish translations.
Indications compl.
Influence subieDe los Reyes mentions the “Doctrina” of Benito Hernández in his prologue, which was, according to him, written in another variety, “la lengua de Tlachiaco and Chiutla”. His Doctrina was also translated into another variety, the one spoken in “Tepuzculula” (Teposcolula). According to Swanton (2016, p. 70) the Achiutla variety was the one Hernández knew best. These works of approximately 200 folios each were written almost entirely in Mixtec. According to Hernández’s prologue, the size of the text made the printing of a bilingual version prohibitively expensive (“si se hiciera en las dos lenguas saliera muy grande el volumen y fuera muy costoso”; Swanton 2016, p. 70). The Mixtec orthography of Hernández was adopted for Mixtec writing for over a century. De los Reyes points out errors in the Teposcolula version of the Doctrina (Reyes 1593, ‘prólogo’, cf. Swanton 2016, p. 72), but was apparently influenced by him (Terraciano 2001, p. 69).
Influence exercéeDe los Reyes produced the only printed grammar of Mixtec during the colonial period, which is the most important linguistic document that has survived, together with the Doctrina’s of Hernández and Alvarado’s vocabulary.
Renvois bibliographiques→ Références
Alvarado F. de 1593; Anonyme 1575; Belmar F. (éd.) 1891; Bertonio Romano L. 1603; Bertonio Romano L. 1603; Bertonio Romano L. 1612; Bertonio Romano L. 1612; Charencey H. de 1888; Charencey H. de (éd.) 1890; Hernández B. 1568; Hernández B. 1568; Martínez Corona G. 2007; Pérez M. 1713; Reyes A. de los 1593; Smith-Stark T. C. 2005; Swanton M. W. 2008; Swanton M. W. 2016; Swanton M. W. 2017; Terraciano K. 2001; Tsutsumi Hernández A. I. 2008; Zwartjes O. 1998; Zwartjes O. 2000

Zwartjes, Otto

Création ou mise à jour2018-09