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Cartilla y Doctrina Christiana

Roldán, Bartolomé de

DomaineTraditions non-occidentales
SecteurGrammaires amérindiennes [4666]

Roldán, Bartolomé de

Datation: ca 1526-1585?

Almost nothing is known about Bartolomé de Roldán, except that he was a Dominican (O.P.). According to information in the Cartilla he came from Spain (Resines 2016, p. 115). Roldán was born around 1526 and was assigned to Tonalá in 1559 and Tamazulapan in 1561 (Swanton 2016, p. 82). He worked in the convent Tepexic de la Seda (today Tepexi de Rodríguez), starting there probably in 1578. In 1583 he was assigned to the convent of Coixtlahuaca, and he probably died soon thereafter. He founded churches in the Sierra Grande. We can read in the prologue of Cartilla y Doctrina Christiana, breve y compendiosa, para enseñar los niños that he had been working with the Chuchones for at least 8 years, before his work was published.

Titre de l'ouvrageCartilla y Doctrina Christiana, breve y compendiosa, para enseñar los niños
Titre traduitSpelling book and a brief and compendious Christian Doctrine for teaching children
Titre courtCartilla y Doctrina Christiana
Remarques sur le titreComplete title: Cartilla y Doctrina Christiana, breve y compendiosa, para enseñar los niños. Y ciertas preguntas tocantes a la dicha Doctrina, por manera de Dialogo: traduzida, compuesta, ordenada y romançada en la lengua Chachona [sic] del pueblo de Tepexic de la Seda, por el muy Reuerendo Padre Fray Bartholome Roldan, de la orde[n] del glorioso Padre Sancto Domingo. “Chachona” is obviously a typographical error. In the text we find Chuchon, often spelled erroneously, as Chucon (as on f. 27). Cartilla is here translated as “spelling book”, which is a type of text, not only containing the letters of the alphabet, but also letter combinations or syllables, with explanations of how to pronounce them, what value the diacritics have, etc. (comparable with the great number of Alphabeta which were printed in Asia by the Propaganda Fide Press).
Période|16e s.|
Type de l'ouvrage‘Cartilla’ and religious texts.
Type indexéTexte religieux
Édition originale1580, Mexico: Pedro Ocharte.
Édition utiliséeCopy Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Signature BH FLL 18892 (A-H8).
VolumétrieLXIIII h. in-4°. Gothic types, with some paragraphs in Roman. The front page has a xylograph representing the Road of the Calvary. Other xylographic representations of San Bartolomé, the Virgen and the Child, the «Sagrada Familia», and other biblical and hagiographical themes.
Nombre de signes3500
Reproduction moderne
Diffusion1867, Charencey (edition Reinisch, S.L.).
Langues ciblesChocho, as it is named in Suárez (1983), is a language of the Popolocan branch of the Otomanguean languages. Various names have been used for the people and/ or their language: Chochon, Chocholteco, Popoloca, Pinotl and Ngiwa. According to Swanton (2016, p. 12-13) the speakers today prefer to use the term Chocholtec, since chuchón or chochón and “los Chochos” often have a pejorative meaning. Popoloca is a Nahuatl term, meaning “she/ he speaks unintelligibly” (in Carochi 1645, book 3, chapter 17, f. 74v) polōni/pòpolōni: “ser tartamudo y hablar barbaramente” (“to be a stutterer”, “to speak barbariously”) and is also used for non-Nahuatl speaking indigenous populations. Swanton (ibid.) admits that Chocholtec is an anachronistic term
MétalangueReligious texts in Latin (first section). Bilingual Doctrina Christiana in the “language of the Chuchones” and Spanish (“en romance”)
Langue des exemplesChocholtec
Sommaire de l'ouvrageLicencia (Iuan de Cueva); Licencia (Juan de Aranda); Licencia y examen (Gabriel de Sant José, Juan Ramírez, Luis Rengino, Jerónimo de Albrego); Carta dedicatoria (Bartolomé Roldán). Prólogo al Pio Lector (Bartolomé Roldán). Avisos (notes): (1) four letters are missing (/b/, /f/, /p/, and /r/). The alphabet is in fact not an “abecedario”, but an “acedario”, (2) about pronunciation, (3) about the diacritics (“señales”) /â/ and /à/. The circumflex is called “campanilla” (“little bell”), the acute accent (“rayuela”) is placed on top of the vowel, “where it has to be made, to stop, and pronounced” (“donde se ha de hazer, ò parar, y pronunciar”). The author gives the minimal pair Tàa (“padre”, “father”) opposed to Taà (“saluarse”, “to be saved”). If the accent is placed on the first “a”, it has to be pronounced prolonged as the two “a-s” are “cut in pieces/ broken” (“se ha de detener alli vn poco, como partiendo las dos aes”. As if it was Tà-a. (here the hyphen is used with the purpose to pronounce them with “hiatus”/ the glottal stop /ɂ/). When the accent is placed on the second vowel (Taà) the word is pronounced “without aspiration” (“va ygual que no lleua aspiracion, no hiriendo mas a la vna que a la otra”); (4) aspirated sounds are pronounced “with the lung”, as in our (Castilian) language ‘Baho’, ‘hao’, ‘hola’ (“se hade pronunciar con el pulmon como quien pronuncia en nuestra lengua Baho, hao, hola”, and if /à/ is combined with /h/ it has to be pronounced with the lung and through the nose (“con el pulmon, y por las narizes”), &c.
Calendario (f. 6-8v); Cartilla para enseñar a leer los niños (f. 9r); Las cinco letras vocales A e i o v (f. 9v); El A c d en Chuchon (f. 10r-v). The rest of the work is a Christian doctrine in Latin (Per signum curcis, pater noster, Ave Maria, Credo, etc. with many illustrations (f. 10v-14v), followed by bilingual sections, Chocholtec on the left column, Spanish on the right (Exortacion y admonestacion a los Indios Chuchones) (f. 14v-16v); Doctrina Christiana (bilingual Chocholtec-Spanish) (f. 17r-27v); Preguntas tocantes a la doctrina (bilingual) (f. 38r-57r); La manera de rezar el Rosario y los Mysterios del (f. 57v-60v); preguntas tocantes a los mysterios (f. 60r-72v).
Objectif de l'auteurFew missionaries knew this language in Roldán's time. The main purpose was to write a “spelling book” (“Cartilla”) and a Christian doctrine in the form of a dialogue.
Intérêt généralIt is the only printed linguistic tool in Chocholtec for missionaries and a translation from Spanish into Chocholtec of the Doctrina Christiana from the colonial period. Interest: linguistic documentation of the language, phonological description, diacritics, description of the glottal stop, aspiration and nasalisation.
Parties du discoursThe book is not a complete grammar. No information about the parts of speech.
Innovations term.Since the ms. was finished in 1579 (Swanton 2016, p. 82-83).This is probably the earliest linguistic text where the glottal stop is defined. The term “Saltillo” is not used by Roldán, and the earliest documentation of this term is Cáceres (ca. 1580). Roldán's description of the glottal stop is probably some years earlier. Other terms for diacritical marks: “campanilla” (synonym for “circunflexo”) used for “nasal” sounds (“se ha de pronunciar por las narizes”) and the term “rayuela” is used for the acute accent; “gangoso” (nasal); the term “subintellecta” is used for vowels which are not pronounced but which are “understood” (Tha instead of Taha, The instead of Tehe, etc.).
Corpus illustratifBilingual text in Spanish and Chocholtec.
Indications compl.
Influence subieResines Llorente (2016) proposed some models of the Cartilla and the Doctrina Christiana. Roldán's work was not only inspired by European sources, but an earlier work written by another Dominican Benito Hernández for the Mixtec mission, entitled Doctrina Xpiana en lengua misteca (1568), which was the source for his translation to Chocholtec (Swanton 2016, p. 83).
Influence exercéeIt is remarkable that other Dominicans in the Philippines describing the “Language of the Sangleys” (or Chincheu, Chio Chiu, Southern Mĭn) used a comparable metalanguage: “asperaçion o sin ella gangoso” (Klöter 2011, p. 177). Dominicans who went to the Philippines and mainland China travelled through Mexico and could have seen works written by other Dominicans, but there is no hard evidence for direct influence, since no names are mentioned as sources.
Renvois bibliographiquesCharencey H. de 1867; Hernández B. 1568; Hernández B. 1568; Klöter H. 2011; Resines Llorente L. 2016; Suárez J. A. 1983; Swanton M. W. 2016

Zwartjes, Otto

Création ou mise à jour2017-05