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Arte de la lengua chiapaneca

Albornoz, Juan de

DomaineTraditions non-occidentales
SecteurGrammaires amérindiennes [4664]

Albornoz, Juan de

Datation: 1656-?

Born in Écija, and baptized in 1656, Juan de Albornoz entered the Order of Dominicans (O.P.) in the convent San Pablo and Santo Domingo in Écija. He left Spain for the New World together with Francisco Ximénez, also from Écija in 1687, and arrived in Chiapas in 1688. The name Juan Albornes is mentioned by Francisco Ximénez (cited in Ruz & Báez 2003, p. 22) in a list of 30 priests who came in Guatemala in 1688. His mission was in Suchiapa, in Chiapas.

Titre de l'ouvrageArte de la lengua chiapaneca, compuesto por el padre Fray Juan de Albornoz, de la orden de predicadores de la Provincia de San Vicente de Chiapa y Guatemala
Titre traduitGrammar of the Chiapanec language
Titre courtArte de la lengua chiapaneca
Remarques sur le titre
Période|17e s.|
Type de l'ouvrageGrammatical sketch, with a brief explanation of sounds and diacritics. Mainly a grammar of “morphology”, and the parts of speech. Albornoz did not consider this MS as definitive. Rules are still uncertain, but there is an excuse, since there does not exist another grammar. “Experience will teach” (usus docebit) and if something can be improved or if something is missing, another can add this in the margin of the text (“pero ninguna [regla] es sierta, ni ai otra mas que la ia dicha de usus dosibit [sic], i si acaso el tiempo o la experiensia la descubriere se podrá poner al margen, como todo lo demas que a este arte faltare”, f. 12v).
Type indexéGrammaire descriptive | Grammaire didactique | Grammaire élémentaire
Édition originale1691, Ms. L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University.
Édition utilisée2003, Ruz, M.H. & Báez, C.M. ed.
Volumétrie22 leaves, 44 p. See also the Catalogue Ayer MS 1518, Newberry Library.
Nombre de signes44000
Reproduction moderne2003, Ruz, M.H. & Báez, C.M. ed.
DiffusionFirst published in Paris, together with the Doctrina Christiana of the Portuguese missionary Luis Barrientos (Pinart 1875).
Langues ciblesChiapanec (language family: Otomanguean, sub-branch Manguean spoken in Nicaragua, Honduras and Chiapas, today extinct). According to the author, the language is ‘barbarous’ (“tan Barbara”, f. 22v). Explanations given in Spanish, with examples in Chiapanec
MétalangueCastilian (Spanish)
Langue des exemplesExamples in Chiapanec
Sommaire de l'ouvrageCapitulo 1. De [la] otorgrafia [sic], [del] modo de escrevir [y] pronunsiar esta lengua chiapaneca (f. 1r-v); Cap. 2. De las partes de la oracion i uso de ellas (1v-2v); Cap. 3 De la primera parte de la orasion, que es el nombre (2r-7r); § 1. De los nombres substantivos; § 2. De los nombres adjetivos; § 3. de los relativos; § 4. de los nombres complexos; § 5. De los numerales; § 6. De los posesivos de los nombres; Cap. 4. De la 2a parte de la oracion que son los pronombres (7v-8r); Cap. 5. De la 3a parte de la oraçion, que es el verbo (83-9v); Cap. 6. De los verbos de la 1a conjugasion, i de este verbo: loho (9r-10v); Cap. 2 [sic]. De los verbos de la 2a conjugacion (the author did not label these sections as paragraphs, but as seperate chapters, so after chapter 6, he labels the next paragraph as chapter 2, which is in fact the second paragraph). (11r); Cap. 3. De los verbos de la 3a co[on]jugac[ci]on (11v); Cap. 4. De los berbos de la 4a c[on]ju[gaci]on (11v); Cap. 5. De la 5a i últioma conjugasion (12r-v); Cap. 6. Del regimen de los numeros (13r-14r); Cap. 7. De los tiempos i su formasion, i de la de los preteritos (14r-15v); Cap. 8. De la formasion de los futu[r]os (15v-16r); Cap. 9. De los imperativos i su formasion (16r-v); Cap. 10. De los infinitivos (16v); Cap. 11. De los gerundios i su formaçion (16v-18r); Cap. 12. De la 4a parte de la orasion, que es el participio (18r-19r); Cap. 13. De las prepocisiones i su uso, que es la 5a pa[rt]e de la oraçion (19r-v); Cap. 14. De la 6a pa[rt]e de la orasion que es el adverbio, i algunas parti[cul]as (29v-20r); Cap. 15. De la 7a pa[rt]e de la oracion ques la interjesion (20v); Cap. 16. De la 8va. I ultima parte de la orasion que es la conjuncion (21v); Cap. 17. De las negaciones i de su regimen (21r-22r); Cap. 18 i ultimo. De la interrogasion (22r-v). In the edition of Albornoz, two tables are appended. The first has the title “Nombre de los meses del año chiapaneco”, the second “el mismo [calendario] según los indios de Nimiyua o Tia Suchiapa” (Ruz & Báez 2003, p. 64). Both tables are copied from Pinart, A. éd. (1875).
Objectif de l'auteurNo specific goals are mentioned explicitly, since the work does not have a prologue. As many other works, Albornoz emphasises that he did not want to write a comprehensive grammar, It is a brief introduction to morphology and parts of speech.
Intérêt généralThe language is extinct. This source is together with the Doctrina en lengua chiapaneca of Fray Luis Barrientos (Ruz, M.H. & Báez, C.M. éd. 2003, p. 107-117) and the Sermones written by Juan Núñez, one of the few texts that have survived on Chiapanec (Ruz, M.H. & Báez, C.M. éd. 2003, p. 123-179). It is significant that the author tells that some plural forms are not marked by plural suffixes but by different accentuation. Albornoz treats the difference between first person plural inclusive (sihmimo) and first person plural exclusive (sihmemo). Albornoz analyses the inclusive form sihmimo, which is etymologically, according to his view, the result of the fusion of the pronouns for “I”, “you”, and “he” (sime, simo, çone), meaning we [all together], including the agent and the patient (“a todos incluie, asi la perona que hase como la que padese”). Simemo is used “excluding someone” (“quando se excluie alguna persona”) (Albornoz 1691, nota 3, f. 2r). Loans from Spanish used in possessive constructions (f. 6v). The author devotes a specific section on the negation (“las negaciones i de su regimen”, f. 21r).
Parties du discoursAs in any language, Chiapanec has eight parts of speech (“Sabido es que las partes de la orasion en qualquier lengua son ocho: nombre, pronombre, verbo, partisipio, preposision, adverbio, interjecion i conjunction.” f. 1v).
Innovations term.“Nombres complexos”. Apparently Albornoz uses this term as synonym for “nombre compuesto”. His definition is as follows: “Sabido es que los nombres complexos son los que se componen ô de de dos nombres o de nombre i bervo” (f. 4v). The analogous term is “verbo complexo”, which appears on f. 12r. The distinction between animate and inanimate is common in Mesoamerican missionary grammars of this period, but Albornoz uses a dichotomy between “viviente” vs “no viviente” (f. 5r, et passim) (“living and not living”). Definition of the “Verbo activo”: cuia accion se queda en si mismo sin pasar a cosa animada (‘amar’,’ andar’) (remarkable since the first ‘amar’ is transitive in Spanish, and the second ‘andar’ is intransitive). “Verbo passivo, o transitivo”: The verb whose “external action passes to the animate thing/ object” (“Accion exterior pasa a cosa animada”; “llamar a otro, hablar a otro, etcetera”) (f. 9v). “Caso absolute” (f. 6r). Several “ablatives” are distinguished: “Ablativo absolute”, “ablativo de causa”, “ablative de exito o de modo” (f. 19v). “Particulas para ampliar o restringir” (superlatives) (f. 20r). The author explains the difference between “Particulas de interrogasion implisitas en la pronunciasion i asento” (as in Spanish), vs “particulas de interrogasion explisitas o pronunciadas i escritas” (pronounced and written explicit interrogative particles). “Verbos mixtos” (not explained).
Corpus illustratifFew entire phrases are included, except in the final chapters (as in chap. 14 on the Adverb). No texts, no section devoted to syntax.
Indications compl.
Influence subieNot known, no names are mentioned. Albornoz only compares features with Latin (en la gramática [latina]).
Influence exercéeNot known.
Renvois bibliographiquesAdam L. 1887; Albornoz J. de 1870; Albornoz J. de 2003; Barrientos L. 2003 {[1690]}; Freire Gálvez R. 2014; Núñez J. 2003; Pinart A. L. (éd.) 1875; Ruz M. H. & Báez Juárez C. M. (éd.) 2003; Ruz M. H. & Báez Juárez C. M. 2003

Zwartjes, Otto

Création ou mise à jour2017-05