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Algunos rudimentos faciles

Martínez, Alonso

DomaineTraditions non-occidentales
SecteurGrammaires amérindiennes [4668]

Martínez, Alonso

Datation: fl. 1633

Alonso Martínez, the author of Algunos rudimentos faciles para empezar a aprender la lengua Çapoteca, is unknown, except that he was a Dominican.


Berendt, Carl Hermann

Datation: 1817-1878

Karl Hermann Berendt was born in Danzig, November 12th, 1817. He died in Guatemala City, May 12th, 1878. He was a German-American physician, doctor, ethnologist, explorer and linguist. As an investigator of Mesoamerican languages, he developed an alphabet for the description of Amerindian languages in his work Analytical Alphabet for the Mexican and Central American Languages (New York, 1869). He worked at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, transcribing grammars and vocabularies of Amerindian languages, mainly from the Mayan family. Most of his works remain unpublished and were deposited in the University of Pennsylvania Museum Library.

Titre de l'ouvrageAlgunos rudimentos faciles para empezar a aprender la lengua Çapoteca a modo de Arte
Titre traduitSome easy rudiments for starting to learn the Zapotec language, by way of an Arte (grammar)
Titre courtAlgunos rudimentos faciles
Remarques sur le titreOther title: Manual breue y compendioso para empezar a aprender Lengua Zapoteca y administrar en caso de necessidad. Lo escribio Fray Alonso Martinez de la Orden de S.o Domingo y lo sujeta a la Santa Madre yglesia catolica romana y a su correccion y censura. Año de 1633.
This work entitled “Algunos rudimentos faciles” (“some easy rudiments”) is not an independent work, but a part of the work Manual breue y compendioso para empezar a aprender Lengua Zapoteca (p. 37-70). The related copy mentioned in the Catalogue of the Franklin Library (Pennsylvania) gives an alternative title “Arte y confesionario en lengua zapoteca”.
Période|17e s.|
Type de l'ouvrageMs. “Confesionario” and a grammatical compendium. As in Córdova’s Arte there is no initial section devoted to phonology and orthography, which is unusual for grammars of this period.
Type indexéGrammaire descriptive | Grammaire didactique | Grammaire élémentaire | Texte religieux
Édition originaleThe description of the JCB is as follows: Manuscript transcription, written in red and black ink, of an original Zapotec language mission manual written in 1633 in the possession of don José Maria Melgar of Vera Cruz, Mexico in 1872. The transcription was made for John Carter Brown by the Mayan scholar C. Hermann Berendt. The “Advertencia” is written by Berendt, and a transcription of this prologue has been published in Peñafiel (1887, p. xxxiii). Another copy (Franklin library) - dated 1871 - is also written by Berendt.
The John Carter Brown Library, Brown University, Providence (Rhode Island), Codex Ind 40, Call nr. b5706229.
Franklin Library: Upenn Ms. Coll. 700, Item 103.
Édition utiliséeJohn Carter Brown Library.
Volumétrie[4], 74 p; 22 cm. (in-4°) (John Carter Brown). The second related to the JCB version, also copied by Berendt, housed at the Franklin Library has the following details, according to the Franklin Library: (Ms Coll. 700, Item 103). 36 leaves; paper; 231 x 198 (170-180 x 130-140) mm. bound to 231 x 202 mm. (Franklin Library, Pennsylvania).
Nombre de signes21000
Reproduction moderneNo recent editions.
Langues ciblesZapotec (Zapotecan, Otomanguean).
The glottonym Zapotec is a Nahuatl exonym, derived from tzapotl (‘zapote’) + -tlan (place) (place where there are abundant fruits). Following the “compendium”, a short text in Spanish and Mixtec. (p. 71-74) is appended.
MétalangueSpanish (Castellano)
Langue des exemplesZapotec
Sommaire de l'ouvrageThe section entitled “algunos rudimentos” of the JCB copy is as follows: Nombre (p. 37), número (38), género (38), pronombre (39), pronombre posesivo (39), verbo (40), cuatro conjugaciones, presente de indicativo, pretérito, futuro (40-42), El verbo pasivo (43) (cuatro conjugaciones, presente, pretérito, future), Regla general de los verbos que varían (44), el imperativo (45), el imperativo de plural (45), futuro en -rus (46), los gerundios (46), optativo (47), El pluscuamperfecto (4 conjugaciones) (47), El subjuntivo (48), de los ablativos absolutos (49). del verbo sum-es-fui, presente de indicativo, en -rus (50), del verbo facio, facis , presente o pretérito, futuro, en -rus (51), fio, fis (51), del verbo volo-vis (51), los verbos de decir y su frasis (52), verbos compulsivos (52), otros verbos equivalentes a estos (54), de los verbos reiterativos (55), los verbos irregulares (56-63), Los relativos quis, qui (64), qui-quę-quod (64), conjunciones (65), adverbios de tiempo (65), Otros adverbios (68-70).
The copy of the Franklin library is slightly different. The summary, cited from the catalogue of this library, is as follows: “Part 2 includes explanations of nouns, pronouns, verb tenses, irregular verbs, temporal adverbs, and other adverbs. It ends with a brief prayer in Zapotec that is not translated (62). In Part 3 the writer begins by saying that just as he finished writing the preceding he received a letter from a friend; it appears that he then quotes from the letter, beginning with the name Padre Fray Alonso ([63]), presumably his own name as used in the greeting. The subsequent narrative about the visit of Fray Juan Martínez in Yanhuitlán (Yanguitlan) mentions Pentecost (dia de Pascua de espiritu santo) 15 May 1633, apparently the day of the visit. Berendt provides 2 footnotes ([63]): the first explains that what preceded this section was a treatise (not contained in his copy) with the title ‘Casos estraños de muelas y dientes’; and the second clarifies the place name Yanguitlan. The copy concludes with a brief passage in Spanish that praises Fray Juan Martínez as a learned man and a great preacher, with good abilities in Mixtec (“supo bien la lengua misteca”); he is referred to with the title vicario prior y provinc̦ial (66). On the tipped in leaf (preceding front endpapers) is a different version of the preliminary note, with additional details about where in the manuscript Berendt found the information for the title and statement of responsibility that he supplies on the title page. A note under the heading Nota del copiante (partial leaf preceding, p. 1) concerns orthography, with an added line (in red ink) explaining that the annotations in red ink constitute a comparison to the work Cuaderno de Tilcaxete, 1793; for Berendt's transcription of that work, under the title Reglas mas comunes del arte del idioma zapoteco del Valle, see Ms. Coll. 700, Item 105” (cf. the anonymous Reglas más comunes also copies by Berendt (Esparza Torres & Niederehe 2015, p. 143, n° 1099 and 1100 and Weeks 2002, p. 243, n° 2616).
Objectif de l'auteurNo specific pedagogical goals are mentioned, since the work does not have a prologue. It is obvious that the work is written for beginners (as in the title: Manuel breve y compendioso para empesar a aprender lengua zapoteca”).
Intérêt généralThe “rudimentos” of Martínez is an abbreviated version of Córdova’s Arte, but the section devoted to Ablativos absolutos (p. 49) contains more examples than the corresponding section in Córdova (f. 3r), which proves that Martínez added material of his own, although it cannot be excluded that he had used another source, different from Córdova’s Arte. Also, Martínez often gives different examples, which demonstrates that he did not copy the text of Córdova verbatim.
Parties du discoursThe author does not sum up the parts of speech.
Innovations term.No specific new terms are introduced.
Corpus illustratifExamples in Valley Zapotec.
Indications compl.Following the conclusion of a 2-page Spanish narrative (p. 63-64) there are two passages in an Indian language, separated by a line in Spanish (“phrasis misteco dice ansi y bien”; p. 65) that seems to indicate that the Indian language used here is Mixtec.
Influence subieThe grammatical compendium is apparently derived from Juan de Córdova’s Arte, (in particular the sections which follow the section on particles, starting on f. 69v), although there are some differences. The third “conjugation”, according to Córdova, are the verbs with “initial” Ti-, which is the fourth conjugation in Martínez. The fourth conjugation in Córdova has the “initial” To- which, according to Martínez, is the third conjugation. Córdova decides not to follow the order of Antonio de Nebrija’s grammar and describes the verb ‘to be’ (sum, est fui) before the four conjugations. Martínez does not follow Córdova and deals with “sum est fui” after the four conjugations. Some sections in Martínez are entirely different from Córdova’s text, such as the section on adverbs. In the section “adverbios de tiempo”, Martínez begins by listing the interrogatives, whereas Córdova’s corresponding section has the title “Adverbios temporales”, without interrogatives. Córdova follows the Latin adverbs in alphabetical order, and Martínez translates from Spanish to Zapotec (as on p. 67), or from Zapotec to Spanish (as on p. 68), not starting with Latin.
Influence exercéeUnknown.
Renvois bibliographiquesBerendt C. H. 1869; Córdova J. de 1578; Esparza Torres M. Á. & Niederehe H.-J. 2015; Martínez A. de 1633; Peñafiel A. (éd.) 1887; Tavárez D. 2017; Weeks J. M. 2002

Zwartjes, Otto

Création ou mise à jour2018-09