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5412_en_Chiba_T01 (Chiba, Tsutomu)

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Part one The Action of the Larynx

Introduction

Chapter I The Structure of the Larynx

1. The Laryngeal Cartilages, the Frame-Work

2. The Vocal Chords

Chapter II Methods of Observation

3. Methods and Apparatus

4. Strobolaryngoscopy

Chapter III The Voice Registers

5. The Classification of the Voice Registers

(1) ‘Soft Voice’ (range: G—c1)

(2) ‘Sharp Voice’ (range: B—a1)

(3) ‘Ordinary Voice’ (range: B—a1)

(4) Falsetto (range: I, g—d²; II, d²—g²)

6. The Chest Register

7. The Falsetto Register

8. Whisper and h-Sound

Chapter IV The Condition of the Vocal Chords

9. X-Ray Observations

10. The Epiglottis

11. The False Vocal Chords

12. The Relations between the Vowels and the Condition of the Larynx

Part two. The Mechanism of Vowel Production

Introduction

Chapter V A Historical Survey of Theories of the Vowels

13. Willis's Theory

14. Wheatstone's Theory

15. Helmholtz's View

16. Hermann's View

17. Rayleigh-Trendelenburg's View

18. Scripture's View

19. A Summary of the Theories of the Vowels

Chapter VI The Action of a Resonator

20. Various Cases of ‘Resonance’

21. The Action of a Resonator

22. ‘Transient’ and ‘Steady State’

23. Sound Spectra

24. The Wave-Forms and Phases of Partials

25. Changes in the Wave-Form Caused by Resonance

Chapter Vll The Vocal Cavity as a Resonator

26. The Vocal Cavity as a Double Resonator

27. An Electrical Analogue of the Vocal Organs

28. The Measurement and Calculation of the Acoustic Elements of the Vocal Cavity

29. The Process of Producing ァ (a), ォ (o) and ゥ (ɯ)

30. The Process of Producing ィ (i) and ェ (e)

31. The Speech Powers of the Vowels

32. Some Properties of the Vocal Resonators

33. Wall Effect

Chapter VIII A few Explanatory Notes on the Theory of Vowels

34. A Helmholtz Resonator as a Sound Emitter or as a Sound Receiver

35. ‘Harmonic’ and ‘Inharmonic’

Part three The Measurement of the Vocal Cavity and the Calculation of Natural Frequencies

Chapter IX The Measurement of the Vocal Cavity

36. X-Ray Photography

37. Palatography

38. Pharyngo-Laryngoscopy

39. Resonators Equivalent to the Vocal Cavity

Chapter X The Correspondence between the Vocal Cavity and the Characteristic Frequencies of the Vowels

40. The Natural Frequencies of Ideal Resonators

41. ィ (i)

42. ェ (e)

43. ァ (a)

44. ォ (o)

45. ゥ (ɯ)

46. Artificial Vowels

Chapter XI The Vocal Cavity as a Non-Uniform Pipe

47. The Variation of Pressure, Particle Velocity and Volume Current in the Vocal Cavity

48. The Number of Resonant Frequencies of the Vocal Cavity

49. The Displacement of Resonant Frequencies of the Vowels

Part four A Subjective Study of the Nature of a Vowel

Introduction

Chapter XII The Psychology, Physiology and Mechanics of Hearing

50. The Anatomy of the Auditory Organs

51. Mechanism of Hearing

52. The Pitch, Loudness and Quality of Sound

(1) Pitch.

(2) Loudness.

(3) Quality.

Chapter XIII The Nature of a Vowel

53. Theories of the Vowels

54. Methods of Experiment

55. Phonographic Observations

56. The Vowels with Regard to Age and Sex

57. The Space Pattern Theory

58. Experiments by Means of the Filters

(1) Methods and Apparatus.

(2) Observation — I. (Experiments on the changes in the quality of tone)

a) Results of the filtration of the sound ァ (a) (Fig. 113).

b) Results of the filtration of the sound ィ (i) (Fig. 114).

c) Results of the filtration of the sound ゥ (ɯ) (Fig. 115).

d) Results of the filtration of the sound ェ (e) (Fig. 116).

e) Results of the filtration of the sound ォ (o) (Fig. 117).

(3) Interpretation.

(4) Observation — II. (Experiments on the identification of vowels)

59. The Extension of the Space Pattern Theory

60. Conclusion

Appendices

Appendix A Electric Impedance Corresponding to Radiation Impedance

Appendix B Graphical Integration of Webster's Wave-Equation