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Boas, Franz. Race, Language and Culture – T10



Early studies of growth have proved that from birth on the rate
of the absolute value of growth of the body as a whole is decreasing
until shortly before adolescence, and that at this time a rapid increase of
the rate of growth develops which lasts for a few years. It is followed
by a decrease which continues until the maximum stature is attained.
Bowditch, 11 Peckham 22 and Roberts, 33 who made these early studies also
showed that the distribution of statures and weights were asymmetrically
distributed. In 1892 I investigated these asymmetries and showed that
they were probably due to the changing rate of growth. I assumed that
the physiological development of children did not proceed at the same
rate, that some might be retarded, others accelerated and that their
physiological status would be distributed symmetrically according to
the laws of chance. This would result in an asymmetrical distribution
of statures. 44

William Townsend Porter's 55 measurements of St. Louis children
showed that children of a certain age in higher school grades were taller
and heavier than those of the same age in lower grades, and concluded
103that bright children grow more rapidly than dull ones. In reviewing his
results I wrote as follows. 16

I should prefer to call the less favorably developed grade of children
retarded, not dull; these terms are by no means equivalent, as a retarded
child may develop and become quite bright. In fact, an investigation
which I had carried on in Toronto with the same object in view, but
according to a different method, gives just the reverse result. The data
were compiled by Dr. G. M. West, who found that the children pronounced
by the teacher as bright were less favorably developed than
those called dull. Furthermore, I do not believe it is correct to say that
the facts found by Dr. Porter establish a basis of precocity and dullness,
but only that precocious children are at the same time better developed
physically; that is to say, the interesting facts presented by Dr. Porter
prove only that children of the same age who are found in higher grades
are more advanced in their general development than those found in
lower grades. Dr. Porter has shown that mental and physical growth
are correlated, or depend upon common causes; not that mental development
depends upon physical growth.

This brings me back to the question of the cause of the asymmetries
of the observed curves. According to the above interpretation of Dr.
Porter's results (which is merely a statement of the observed facts), we
must expect to find children of a certain age to be at different stages
of development. Some will stand on the point corresponding exactly
to their age, while others deviate from it. This was the assumption which
I made in the paper quoted above, when trying to explain the asymmetries
of the curves, and I consider Dr. Porter's observations a strong
argument in favor of my theory, which may be briefly summarized as

When we consider children of a certain age we may say that they will
not all be at the same stage of development. Some will have reached
a point just corresponding to their age, while others will be behind, and
still others in advance of their age. Consequently the values of their
measurements will not exactly correspond to those of their ages. We
may assume that the difference between their stage of development and
that belonging to their exact age is due to accidental causes, so that just
104as many will be less developed as further developed from the average
child of a particular age. Or, there will be as many children at a stage
of development corresponding to that of their age plus a certain length
of time as corresponding to that of their age minus a certain length of

The number of children who have a certain amount of deviation in
time may be assumed to be arranged in a probability curve, so that the
average of all the children will be exactly at the stage of development
belonging to their age.

At a period when the rate of growth is decreasing rapidly, those children
whose growth is retarded will be further remote from the value
belonging to their age than those whose growth is accelerated. As the
number of children above and below the average of development is
equal, those with retarded growth will have a greater influence upon the
average measurement than those whose growth is accelerated, therefore
the average value of the measurement of all the children of a certain age
will be lower than the typical value, when the rate of growth is decreasing;
higher than the typical value when the rate of growth is increasing.
This shows that the averages and means of such curves have no meaning
as types. I have shown in the place quoted above, how the typical
values can be computed and also that for stature they differ from the
average up to the amount of 17 mm.

These considerations also show clearly that the curves must be asymmetrical.
Supposing we consider the weights of girls of thirteen years of
age, the individuals composing this group will consist of the following
elements: girls at their normal stage whose weight is that of the group
considered, advanced girls, and retarded girls. In each of these groups
which are represented in the total group in varying numbers, the weights
of the individuals are probably distributed according to the laws of
chance, or according to the distribution of weights in the adult population.
What, however, will be the general distribution ? As the rate of
increase of weight is decreasing, there will be crowding in those parts of
the curves which represent the girls in an advanced stage of development,
and this must cause an asymmetry of the resultant general curve,
which will depend upon the composition of the series. This asymmetry
does actually exist at the period when the theory demands it, and this
coincidence of theory and observation is the best argument in favor of
the opinion that advance and retardation of development are general
and do not refer to any single measurement.105

Furthermore, the increase in variability until the time when growth
begins to decrease, and its subsequent decrease, are entirely in accord
with this theory. I have given a mathematical proof of this phenomenon
in the paper quoted above (p. 103, note 4)… Dr. Porter's formulation
of the phenomenon, namely that “the physiological difference
between the individual children in an anthropometric series and
the physical type of the series is directly related to the quickness of
growth” does not quite cover the phenomenon.

It will be seen from these arguments that the very natural supposition
that some children develop more slowly than others is in accord with
all the observed facts. It was necessary to prove this in some detail
because the further interpretations made by Dr. Porter largely hinge
upon this point.

These conclusions are based on the assumption that “the type at a
certain deviation from the mean of an age will show the same degree

image Percentile Grades | Age

Fig. 1. Change in percentile position of individuals
starting at 15 years with the percentile
grades of 27 and 73 respectively. U. S. Naval

of deviation from the
mean at any subsequent
age; for example, a type
boy in the 75 percentile
grade at age 6 will
throughout his growth be
heavier than 75 per cent
of boys of his own age.”
This assumption which I
have criticised on a former
occasion 17 is incorrect.

The criticism made in
this paper against the assumption
that children
will always remain on the same percentile grade, as assumed by Bowditch
and Porter was empirically supported by Henry G. Beyer. 28 In
reviewing his paper 39 I said:

“The most important part of the investigation is the discussion of
individual growth which proves beyond a doubt that the assumption
106made by Bowditch and Porter, namely, that on the average individuals
of a certain percentile rank retain this rank through life does not hold
good…” (Fig. 1).

image Per Cent | Inches

Fig. 2. Amount of total growth from 16 years to adult of males of various statures.

Another important phenomenon brought out in this paper is that
tall boys of 16 years grow much less than short boys, because they are
nearer the adult stage (Fig. 2).

image Short | Tall | Boys | Girls | Age

Fig. 3. Average amount of growth of tall and short
children. Worcester, Mass.107

From data collected in Worcester, Mass., 110 I proved that in early
years short children grow more slowly than tall children 211 (Fig. 3);
that is to say, their general development continues to be slow. Later on,
during the period of adolescence, they continue to grow, while tall children
have more nearly reached their full development. Small children
are throughout their period of growth retarded in development, and
smallness at any given period as compared to the average must in most
cases be interpreted as due to slowness of development. During early
life slowness of development which has manifested itself is likely to
continue, while some of the effects of retardation will be made good during
the period of adolescence, which is liable to be longer than in children
who develop rapidly in early life.

On account of these intricate relations between the amounts of growth
and stature attained at a given moment the percentile position of individuals
or of groups of individuals does not remain the same, but approaches
the average.

The results of this investigation suggest that the differences of growth
observed in children of different nationalities and of parents of different
occupations may also be partly due to retardation or acceleration
of growth, partly to differences in heredity.

In order to decide this question we may assume that in the averages
obtained for all the series representing various social groups only accidental
deviations from the general average occurred. Then it is possible
to calculate the average deviation which would result under these conditions.
When the actual differences that have been found by observation
are taken into consideration another average deviation results. If
the latter nearly equals the former, then the constant causes that affect
each social group are few and of slight importance. If it is much larger
than the former, then the causes are many and powerful. The ratio
between the theoretical value of the deviation and the one obtained by
observation is therefore a measure of the number and value of the causes
influencing each series.

I have applied these considerations to the measurements of Boston
school children obtained by Dr. H. P. Bowditch. I have used thirteen
different classes in my calculations, namely, five nationalities: American,
Irish, American and Irish mixed, German and English; and eight
108classes grouped according to nationalities and occupations: American
professional, mercantile, skilled labor and unskilled labor, and the same
classes among the Irish.

The observed and theoretical values are indicated in the following
diagram (Fig. 4).

The values obtained by actual observation are always greater than
those obtained under the assumption that only accidental causes influence
the averages for each class. These causes reach a maximum during
the period of growth and decrease as the adult stage is reached. The
maximum is found in the fourteenth year in the case of girls, i.e., in those

image Observation | Chance Determination | Males | Females | Age

Fig. 4. Variability of social and national
groups as observed and as expected,
if only chance determined the

years in which the effects of acceleration
and retardation of growth
are strongest. Although the values
given here cannot claim any very
great weight on account of the
small number of classes, this
phenomenon is brought out most

The figures prove, therefore that
the differences in development between
various social classes are, to
a great extent, results of acceleration
and retardation of growth
which act in such a way that the
social groups which show higher
values of measurements do so on
account of accelerated growth, and
that they cease to grow earlier than
those whose growth is in the beginning
less rapid, so that there is
a tendency to decreasing differences between these groups during the
last years of growth.

The interpretation here given explains the simultaneous advance of
stature, weight, and school achievement. The question is of sufficient
importance to demand further corroboration. If the general development
affects all the traits of the body, being dependent upon physiological
age, we may expect that the correlation of measures during the
period of rapid growth is increased, because all are affected at the same
time in the same way. This was shown to be the case for school children
109of Worcester, Mass., and for selected years for those of Milwaukee and
Toronto 112 (Fig. 5).

The theory is further corroborated by the observation of those children

image Boys | Stature and Weight | Stature and Sitting — Height | Sitting — Height and Weight | Age

image Girls | Age

Fig. 5. Correlation of measurements during period of growth.
Worcester, Mass.

who have their maximum rate of growth during a given annual
interval and who may be supposed to be nearly at the same stage of
physiological development. The typical increase of variability which is
110found in the total series and which is due to the combination of individuals
who differ in the stage of physiological development disappears
almost completely in many of these selected, uniform groups 113 (Fig. 6).

Considering that on account of the inaccuracy of measurements the
period of maximum growth is not exactly determined, it seems plausible
that if the classifications were made more rigidly the ill defined maxima
would disappear entirely. 214 The reduction in variability and the weakening
of the maximum prove again that the great increase in variability
of the total series at the period of adolescence is solely an effect of the

image Girls | Boys | Age

Fig. 6. Variability of stature of boys and girls having the same periods of maximum
growth, compared with variability of total series. Horace Mann School.

retardation and acceleration of different individuals, for during the
period of rapid growth those who are retarded will be much shorter
than those who are accelerated. 315111

The theory is finally proved by the determination of the tempo of
development as shown in the moments when certain physiological stages
are reached and by their variability. 116

As might be expected individual differences in the tempo of development
occur. Even children of the same family do not all develop at the
same rate. Some of these differences are hereditary, but others due to
outer conditions are at least equally important. Satisfactory nutrition
and absence of pathological processes accelerate growth. Poor nutrition
and frequent diseases retard it. Therefore we have to investigate in how
far individuals of the same population vary at various periods of life;
for instance, at what age the canines of individuals of the same group
erupt. The investigation of various events in the life of man which are
characteristic of certain age classes shows that the variability of the age
in which such an event takes place increases rapidly with increasing age.
For example, the period of pregnancy varies by a few days, the eruption
of the first deciduous tooth by a few months, puberty by more than a
year, and death by arteriosclerosis by more than ten years. The degree
of variability is expressed by the mean square deviation from the average
age. 217

tableau Male | Female | Difference | Pregnancy | Eruption of deciduous teeth | Lower central incisor | Lower molar 1 | Loss of deciduous teeth | Upper lateral incisor | Lower canine | Eruption of lower molar 2 | Ossification of hand | Presence of triquetrum | Presence of naviculare | Presence of pisiforme | Maximum rate of growth | Calcification of first rib 60% | Menopause

An increase in variability occurs also in the grouping of children
according to mental maturity as expressed by their standing in school
112grades. 118 Thus girls in Worcester, Mass., in 1890 were distributed as

tableau Age | Average grade

It appears from these data that the increase in variability of physiological
age is rapid until the fifth or sixth year. From the sixth to the
twentieth year it increases slowly. At a later age the increase is very

I have described here the variability of the physiological development
as though the whole body were a unit. There are, however, differences
in the speed of development of various organs. This is brought out most
clearly by a comparison of the dates for eruption of teeth of boys and
girls. While in all other traits girls of a given age are much more mature
than boys of the same age, there are very slight differences only in the
eruption of teeth, proof that these are subject to influences different
from those acting upon the skeleton.

It is not admissible to assume with Crampton that physiological development
is equal to physiological age.

This appears in a comparison between growth and menarche. The
earlier the age of maximum growth, the longer is the interval between
this moment and the date of menarche. 219

tableau Age of Maximum Growth | Years | Average Interval between Date of Maximum Growth and Menarche | Months

A general comparison between the data for males and females shows
that the whole development of the female is more rapid than that of the
male. This brings about a curious relation between the measures of the
113two sexes. 120 It has been assumed that the sexes develop at approximately
the same rate until the prepubertal spurt of the girls sets in, about two
years before that of the boys. During this period stature and weight of
girls exceed those of boys and this lasts until the prepubertal spurt of
the boys begins while the girls are concluding their period of growth.

When we remember that growth depends upon the physiological state
of the body, we recognize that from four years on girls should be compared
with boys who are about a year and a half older than they themselves.

image Males | Females | Length of Head | Width of Head | Age

Fig. 7. Length and width of head
of boys and girls.

If this view is correct it will
be seen that the relation of size of
the sexes found in the adult is also
present in childhood.

The best proof of the correctness
of this view is given by the peculiar
relation of the measures which
complete the principal part of their
growth at an early time. The
growth of the head offers a good
example. The total amount of increment
from the second year on is
slight. Therefore, if girls are ahead
of boys by one year and a half the
increment of growth corresponding
to this period is slight. If the typical difference between the sizes of
the sexes should be present during early childhood the heads of girls
ought to be smaller than those of the boys of the same age. This is
actually the case. The length of head of the adult woman is about 96%
of that of men. In childhood the length of head of girls is about 97.4%
of that of boys of the same age (Fig. 7). The ratio of 96% would be
found among girls chronologically three years younger than boys. 221 For
stature the normal relation of sizes of adult men and women is found for
girls chronologically one and a half years younger than boys which corresponds
to their physiological acceleration. The results of psychological
tests also show better results for girls than for boys of the same age,
which may also be due to a greater speed of development of girls.114

The general growth curve, being composed of individuals of markedly
different physiological stages becomes clearer when those having
the same physiological stage at some moment of their development are
segregated. I chose for this moment the time when the maximum rate
of growth of stature occurs, since this moment is in all probability most
closely related to the development of stature. The following curve shows
the growth of the various groups (Fig. 8).

image Males | Females | Age

Fig. 8. Growth curves of boys and girls for those having maximum rate of
growth at the same time. Horace Mann School.115

image Non-Hebrew | Hebrew

Fig. 9. Annual increments for boys who have the same periods of
maximum rate of growth. Annual intervals to be read from apex of
each curve. Horace Mann School.

image Non-Hebrew | Hebrew

Fig. 10. Annual increments for girls who have the same periods of maximum
rate of growth. Annual intervals to be read from apex of each curve. Horace
Mann School.116

It has been shown before that in these groups the increase in variability
which coincides approximately with the period of maximum
growth all but disappears.

A comparison of the rates of annual growth for those who have the
maximum rate of growth at the same time, during the periods preceding
and following that moment, show that development proceeds the more
rapidly the earlier it sets in (Figs. 9, 10).


Fig. 11. Growth curves of girls who have the same stature at 10 years and the same
period of maximum rate of growth. Horace Mann School.117

This is also indicated by the total amount of increment during longer
periods preceding and following the moment of maximum rate of
growth, for example, during a period of 4½ years before and 4½ years
after this moment.

image Age

Fig. 12. Growth curves of girls who have the same stature
at 17 years and the same periods of maximum rate of growth.
Horace Mann School.

During this period, girls 122 who have their maximum rate of growth

tableau grow118

The character of the growth curve may be analyzed still further
by considering those children who have the maximum rate of growth
and the same stature at a given time. We may then expect that accelerated
individuals will have attained the selected stature on account
of their acceleration, and since they are nearer the end of their growth
period the remaining amount of growth will be less, so that genetically
they belong to a short type while the retarded individuals would have

image Adult | Age

Fig. 13. Growth of boys in the Newark Academy
with the same period of maximum rate of growth.

the same stature because
they are tall by heredity.
examination of the
growth curves compiled in
this manner shows that the
later the time of maximum
rate of growth for
a selected stature, the
greater is the adult stature;
also that the higher
the selected stature for individuals
with the same
time of maximum rate of
growth the greater is the
adult stature. Conversely
during the years preceding
the selected stature for a
given year those who are
accelerated are taller than
those retarded. This is
clearest in the later years
of growth (Figs. 11, 12).

Unfortunately the available
data do not permit us
to follow the observation
up to absolutely completed growth. Some scanty data on boys of the
same social stratum who have been followed up to the completed adult
stage (Fig. 13) do not indicate that acceleration has any result on the
final stature, while the observations on girls followed up to 17 years on
which the data discussed above refer would indicate a slight effect. It
is exceedingly difficult to obtain data containing an adequate number
of continuous observations up to the adult stage.119

The observations for 8-year-old girls 123 may be represented by the

Adult stature = 161.35 + .99x + .96y

x representing the deviation from the average stature at 8 years in centimeters,
y the deviation in years from the average moment of maximum
rate of growth.

The variability of menarche is ± 1.6 years. According to this, girls
whose menarche is twice the variability, i.e., 3.2 years before the average
age, would be 3.2 × .96, or about 3 cm. shorter than those of average
physiological development. On the other hand stature in young years,
on account of its great variability, will have a much more marked
influence. The variability is approximately ±5.5 cm. Consequently
retarded individuals whose deviation from the norm is twice the variability,
i.e., 11 cm. too low, will be as adults 10.9 cm. shorter than the
average girl. In other words, what is presumably hereditary stature has
a much stronger influence than tempo of development.

At the same time the tempo of development does not depend entirely
upon environment. This has been demonstrated by our discussion
on pp. 86 et seq., which showed that familial traits influence the
rates of growth of brothers and sisters.

The general increase in stature which has been observed in every
part of Europe proves that non-hereditary influences affect the growth
of the body. Various studies have shown that children of parents living
under modern conditions exceed their parents in stature. The recent
study of the stature and other bodily measurements of Harvard students
compared with those of their own fathers 224 demonstrates this definitely.

A study of growing children of each age shows that those born in
recent years are taller than those born earlier. In order to avoid possible
errors I investigated the statures of the parents of immigrant children
contained in my report on Changes in Bodily Form of Immigrants. 325
These measurements were taken in 1909. The ages of the adults give,
therefore, at the same time the year of birth.

Figure 14 indicates merely the gradual decrease of stature with increasing
age. If there should be any increase with time of birth it would
be very slight. I think we may safely say that the stature of Hebrew
120immigrants has remained the same from 1845 to 1890. This corresponds
to the stability of their economic and social condition in Europe
during this period.

The condition of the children admitted to the Hebrew Orphan
Asylum and the Hebrew Shelter and Guardian Society shows, on the
contrary, a very considerable increase in stature according to their dates
of birth. Only observations at the time of admittance were used in
the diagrams (Fig. 15) which give the average differences between the
stature of the entering child and the general average for quinquennial
periods of data of birth. The observations in Horace Mann School

image Males | Females | Bohemians | Sicilians | Hebrews | Age

Fig. 14. Decrease of stature with increasing age.

which are contained in the same diagram show similar results. The
increase for the population consisting of children of American-born
parents, represented here by the Non-Hebrew population of Horace
Mann School, is less than that of children of more recent immigrants,
represented by the other groups. The increase is most marked for the
Negro population of the Riverdale Orphan Asylum.

A comparison of a number of measures of adult Hebrews living in
America, mostly born in the United States, taken in 1909 and in 1937
shows also increases in all measures although not in equal proportional

tableau Increase of Measures in Percent | Male [ Female | Stature | Length of head | Width of head | Width of face121

The tempo of development has also become quicker during this
period. Girls in the Hebrew Orphan Asylum born in the quinquennial
period 1905-1909 had their first menstruation at the average age of
14.8 years, those born in the quinquennial period 1915-1919 at the

image Horace Mann School | Non-Hebrew | Hebrew | Hebrew Orphan Asylum | College of the City of New York | Riverdale (Negro) Orphan Asylum

Fig. 15. Difference between average stature in centimeters, of a
number of total series (regardless of year of birth) and of subgroups of
individuals born in quinquennial intervals. All ages combined.

average age of 13.1 years. Negro girls in the Riverdale Orphanage
reached maturity in the period 1910-1914 at the age of 14.3 years, in
the period 1920-1924 at the age of 13.3 years. For Horace Mann
School the acceleration between 1886 and 1918 amounts to about five
122months. The acceleration for the period of maximum rate of growth for
the same period is approximately 6.5 months.

The influence of outer conditions upon growth may also be studied
by a comparison of various social strata. As an example I give the
statures of Hebrew children in an expensive private school compared
with the general East Side population of Hebrews, both series belonging
to the same period (Fig. 16).

The importance of environmental influences appears also in the development
of Hebrew infants in a well conducted orphan asylum. It

image Private Schools | General Population | Boys | Girls | Age

Fig. 16. Growth curves for Hebrew boys and girls.

seems that the children at the time of their admission are in a very poor
condition. Under the excellent medical care they enjoy, their weight
increases favorably (Fig. 17). When they enter they are much lighter
than the average American children, 126 but the older they are and, therefore,
the longer they have been in charge of the Institution, the heavier
they are, and after 29 months they begin to exceed children of the general
123population. At the same time the eruption of their deciduous teeth
remains much retarded.

A study of the effect of institutional life upon children has given
further evidence of the effect of environment on growth. This investigation
was made in the Hebrew Orphan Asylum in New York City, first
in 1918, and repeated in 1928 on children entering after 1918. The
former investigation had shown that life in the Orphan Asylum affected
growth during the first few years unfavorably, and that it took a long

image Weight in Pounds | Infants in the Home | General Average of American Infants | Age in months

Fig. 17. Weights of Hebrew infants in an orphan asylum
compared with the weights of infants of the general American

time before the loss could be made up. In 1918 the general policy of
the administration changed. There was a change in diet, less regimentation,
more outdoor exercise and an effort to meet the needs of individual

The results of the measurements of children at entrance are given in
Figure 18.

It will be seen that the children placed in charge of the Hebrew
Orphan Asylum before 1918 were, at the time of admission, shorter
than those admitted after 1918.124

image Admitted before 1918 | Admitted after 1918 | Boys | Girls | Age

Fig. 18. Statures of children admitted to the Hebrew
Orphan Asylum before and after 1918.

image Girls | Boys | After 1918 | Before 1918 | Years

Fig. 19. Difference between average statures in centimeters of
children of all ages at time of admission to the Hebrew Orphan
Asylum, and statures after from 1-9 years of residence.125

According to the statement of Mr. Simmonds, the director of the
asylum, the selection of families before and after 1918 has remained
the same. The larger value in the columns after 1918 must, therefore,
be due to the larger statures of those born in later years. In Figure 19
the effect of residence in the Orphan Asylum is indicated. For children
in the Asylum before 1918 we find first a deficit of stature during the
first few years of residence. It reaches its maximum after about four
years of residence. After almost seven or eight years normal growth is

image Newark academy | City College

Fig. 20. Comparison of growth curves of boys of the same stature at 12
years of age in Newark Academy and in the College of the City of New York.
The curves show the amount of growth from 12 years on for boys of statures
from 130-150 cm. in 5 cm. groups.

attained. For children admitted after 1918 there is an increasing improvement
over the norm with increasing time of residence.

Racial determinants of growth curves are difficult to determine on
account of the strong environmental influences that affect growth. The
tempo of growth seems to be little affected by racial descent, but depends
rather upon environment. The average time of maturity of girls in New
York is practically the same for North Europeans and Hebrews. 127126

tableau Horace Mann School | Non-Hebrew | Hebrew | Hebrew Orphan Asylum | Italian Public School | Negro Orphan Asylum | Girls

A larger number of cases observed in the Abraham Lincoln High
School gave an average of 13.1 ± 1.0 for 1714 Jewish girls. The period
of maximum rate of growth of girls in Horace Mann School is 12.0 ±
1.2 for Non-Hebrews, 12.1 ± 1.2 for Hebrews; for North European

image Hebrew | Non-Hebrew | Boys | Girls | Age

Fig. 21. Growth of Non-Hebrew and Hebrew children in Horace Mann School.127


Fig. 22. Annual increments for Negro girls having maximum rates
of growth at various periods.

boys of Newark Academy 14.4 ± 1.1, for boys of City College (almost
all Hebrew) 128 14.7 ± 1.1.

A difference in the growth curves of Non-Hebrews and Hebrews appears
in a comparison of the total amounts of growth for boys of the

image Negroes | Whites | Age

Fig. 23. Annual increments of Negro and White

same statures at 12, 13, and
14 years observed respectively
in Newark Academy
and City College. The short
boys of City College, largely
Hebrew, grow up to a certain
point more rapidly
than the Newark Academy
boys who after this time
grow more rapidly than the
City College boys (Fig.
20). The diagram shows
that the decline of the rapidity
of growth sets in
earlier in the short Hebrew
boys than in the short Non-Hebrew
boys. The greater
stature of young Hebrew children appears also in a comparison of
Hebrew and Non-Hebrew children in private schools. Still, it is doubtful
128whether this is mainly a racial characteristic, for when the same
comparison is made for children of the Horace Mann School whose
economic conditions are more strictly comparable, the Hebrew children
are very little shorter than the Non-Hebrew ones (Fig. 21). For boys
in the same school the statures of the children of these two groups are
practically the same. In most of the series the adult statures of Hebrews
is considerably below that of Non-Hebrews, but in this respect also the

image Horace Mann School | Public Schools | Negro Orphans | Hebrew Orphans | Hebrew General Population | Age

Fig. 24. Comparative growth curves of girls.

results are not consistent, for the statures of Hebrew and Non-Hebrew
males at 17 and 18 years are almost equal. The results are not such that
we can infer with certainty an effect of racial descent. It seems most
plausible for adult stature, but even there it is not certain.

A comparison of Negro and White in New York shows that the time
of adolescence and of the period of maximum rate of growth coincide,
or at least, that the difference in period is very slight. As among the
Whites, the earlier the period of maturation the more intense is the
129growth (Fig. 22). 129 Besides this we find that on the average the intensity
of growth among the Negroes is greater than among the Whites. It is
not possible to decide whether this is a racial characteristic or due to
environmental factors (Fig. 23).

The total growth curve of Negro orphan girls agrees with that of
other groups growing up under unfavorable conditions (Fig. 24).130

11 See footnote 2, p. 49.

22 Geo. W. Peckham, “The Growth of Children,” 6th Annual Report of the State
Board of Health of Wisconsin
(1881) pp. 28-73.

33 Charles Roberts, A Manual of Anthropometry (London, 1878).

44 Franz Boas, “The Growth of Children,” Science, vol. 19 (May 6 and 20, 1892),
pp. 256, 257, 281, 282; vol. 20 (December 23, 1892), pp. 351, 352.

55 a. “The Physical Basis of Precocity and Dullness,” Transactions of the Academy
of Science of St. Louis
, vol. 6, no. 7 (March 23, 1893).

b. “The Relation between the Growth of Children and Their Deviation from the
Physical Type of Their Sex and Age,” Ibid., vol. 6, no. 10 (November 14, 1893).

c. “Untersuchungen der Schulkinder in Bezug auf die physischen Grundlagen
ihrer geistigen Entwicklung,” Verh. d. Berliner Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie
(1893), pp. 337-354.

d. “The Growth of St. Louis Children,” Transactions of the Academy of Science
of St. Louis
, vol. 6, no. 12 (April 14, 1894), PP- 263 — 380; republished in The
Quarterly Publications of the American Statistical Association
, N.S., vol. 3, no. 24
(December, 1893), pp. 577-587.

e. “The Growth of St. Louis Children,” Ibid., vol. 6, nos. 25, 26 (March-June,
1894), pp. 28-34.

61 “On Dr. William Townsend Porter's Investigation of the Growth of the School
Children of St. Louis,” Science, N.S., vol. 1 (1895), pp. 227 et seq.

“Dr. William Townsend Porter's Untersuchungen über das Wachsthum der
Kinder von St. Louis,” Korrespondenz-Blatt der Deutschen anthropologischen Gesellschaft,
vol. 26 (1895), pp. 41-46.

71 “The Growth of Children,” Science, 20 (December 23, 1892), p. 351.

82 “The Growth of United States Naval Cadets,” Proceedings of the United States
Naval Institute
, vol. 21, no. 2, whole series no. 74.

93 Review of Henry G. Beyer's “The Growth of U. S. Naval Cadets,” Science,
N.S., vol. 2 (1895), pp. 344 et seq.

101 “The Growth of Toronto Children,” Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education
for 1896-97
(Washington, 1898), p. 1549.

112 “The Growth of Children,” Science, N.S., vol. 5 (1897), p. 571.

121 “Statistics of Growth,” Chapter II, from the Report of the U. S. Commissioner
of Education for 1904
(Washington, 1905), p. 27.

131 “Studies in Growth,” Human Biology, vol. 4, no. 3 (September, 1932), pp. 319
et seq.; “Studies in Growth II,” Human Biology, vol. 5, no. 3 (1933), pp. 432 et seq.

142 Ibid., vol. 4 (1932), p. 326.

153 Recently the same question has been discussed by Dahlberg in his observations
on correlations of stature during the period of growth. It also agrees with observations
on the development of girls with premature first menstruation. Gunnar Dahlberg,
“Korrelationserscheinungen bei nicht erwachsenen Individuen, etc.,” Zeitschrift
für Morphologie und Anthropologie
, vol. 29 (1931), pp. 288 et seq., particularly,
p. 302.

161 See also tables on pp. 97, 98 in which the variability is expressed by the value of
the probable variability.

172 “Einfluss von Erblichkeit und Umwelt auf das Wachstum,” Zeitchrift für
, vol. 45 (1913), pp. 618-620. In part translated on pp. 82 et seq. of this

181 “Statistics of Growth,” Report of the United States Commissioner of Education
for 1904
(Washington, 1905), p. 38.

192 “Studies in Growth,” Human Biology, vol. 4, no. 3 (1932), p. 311.

201 “Einfluss von Erblichkeit und Umwelt auf das Wachstum,” Zeitschrift für
, vol. 45 (1913), p. 618.

212 The same has been shown by Ruth Sawtell Wallis for the diaphysis of radius
and tibia (“How Children Grow,” University of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare,
vol. 5 (1931), pp. 86, 117).

221 Franz Boas, “Studies in Growth,” Human Biology, vol. 4, no. 3 (1932), p. 333.

231 Franz Boas, “Studies in Growth,” op. cit. p. 339.

242 G. F. Bowles, New Type of Old Americans at Harvard (Cambridge, 1932).

253 Changes in Bodily Form of Descendants of Immigrants (Washington, Government
Printing Office, 1911, 61st Congress, 2d Session. Senate Document 208). The
original data are contained in Materials for the Study of Inheritance in Man, Columbia
University Contributions to Anthropology, vol. 6 (1928).

261 R. M. Woodbury, “Statures and Weights of Children under Six Years of Age,”
Department of Labor, Children's Bureau (Washington, D. C, 1921).

271 These values are obtained by allowing a correction of crude values. This correction
is necessary, because many children were observed before they had reached

281 This value is probably too high because the series begins with 12-year-old

291 The cases where maximum rate of growth occurs between 13 and 14, and 14
and 15 apparently deviate, but the amount of available material is insufficient to
draw safe conclusions.