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Delattre, Pierre. Studies in French and Comparative Phonetics – T28

The Physiological Interpretation of
Sound Spectrograms *1

In the physiological study of speech articulations our most objective information has
come, until recently, from radiograms. 12 Now we have, in addition, spectrograms, 23
which, if we learn to interpret them, can also give us very objective information. For
the typical phase (portion) of a speech sound, the interest of a spectrogram may be
about equal to that of a radiogram; but for the transitional phases, the interest of a
spectrogram will probably be much superior; and from the practical viewpoint of
availability, the spectrogram will have a marked advantage for it can be had in a few
minutes and at low cost. But to the linguist, the usefulness of a spectrogram depends
on his ability to interpret it in articulatory terms. We need not stress, therefore, the
importance of investigating the relation between formant 34 positions and speech organ
positions at this stage of the still young science of sound spectrography.

Since Martin Joos's presentation of the relation between the articulatory triangle
and the acoustic triangle in terms of a relation between formant 1 and tongue-height
and between formant 2 and back-to-front tongue placement, 45 some progress must
have been made by spectrography researchers. This is our contribution to this

It is generally believed that “the shape of the filtering cavity is so very complex as
225to be mathematically unmanageable …” 56 This may seem very discouraging, but it is
not. To the phonetician it means only that it will probably not be possible to determine
exactly to what extent a certain formant can be assigned to a certain cavity.
This is not of great importance to him. What he needs to know is rather the relation
of each formant to the position or movement of articulatory organs. And that can
be determined to a large extent (a) by studying the effect of isolated articulatory
movements on formant positions with the help of spectrograms, (b) by comparing
the spectrograms with radiograms, and in certain cases (c) by checking the findings
on a speech synthesizer to see if the formant changes (or change) resulting from an
isolated articulatory movement produced the auditory impression expected from this

We shall apply this (a), (b), (c) technique successively to formants 1, 2, and 3 in
that order. Before starting, let it be well understood that we are not concerned here
with mouth cavities; to formant frequencies, we are exclusively trying to relate
articulatory movements and positions. (More will be said about this in the discussion
of formant 2).

Formant 1

The phonetic triangles and quadrilaterals, in their vertical direction, have all been
based on tongue-height (the highest point of the tongue arch); therefore, it was
natural for Joos to speak of tongue-height when relating the triangle obtained by
plotting formants 1 and 2 on a logarithmic scale to the traditional phonetic (articulatory)
triangle. However, the term tongue-height may not be the most appropriate in
relation to the frequency of formant 1. Perhaps the more general term of “opening”
(meaning overall opening of the oral tract with definite relation to the width of the
strictures at the main points of articulation, but not depending entirely on that)
would be more correct. If we examine formant 1 not only on spectrums of vowels
but also on those of voiced consonants, this will appear clearly.


Vowels. Let us compare the two vowels [i] and [u], for instance. According to our
measurements their formant 1 frequencies are nearly the same. In many cases they
are exactly the same, as in the series of spectrograms on which our French acoustic
triangle is based. See Fig. 1: [i] and [u] have same formant 1 frequencies on the
spectrograms (bottom left); consequently the line joining them on the acoustic chart
(center) is horizontal. It does not sink to the right as in the Jones quadrilateral (Fig.
2). The same can be seen on Fig. 4 where formant 1 follows a straight horizontal line
from [i] to [u]. Confirmation of this frequency similarity for [i] and [u] formant 1 can
also be obtained by the synthetic production of those vowels. On the Cooper pattern
playback, 67 with the harmonic channels set at 120 cycles apart, the best [i] and the226

image i | e | ɛ | y | ø | œ | a | ɑ | ɔ | o | u

image i | y | u | e | ø | o | ɛ | œ | ɔ | ɑ | a

image i | y | u | e | ø | o | ɛ | œ | ɔ | ɑ | a

Fig. 1. An Acoustic Vowel Chart. This chart is reproduced from my article, “Un triangle acoustique
des voyelles orales du français”, French Review, XXI (May 1948), 481. The place of each vowel on the
chart was determined by plotting the frequency of formant 1 vertically versus the frequency of
formant 2 horizontally. Plotting is done on a logarithmic scale in order that the relative distances
from one vowel to another correspond to the auditory impression and not to the acoustic frequency.
This way, equal intervals on the chart correspond to equal intervals for the ear. Below the triangle,
spectrograms are arranged to show the order in which the frequency of formant 1 increases (oral
tract opening). Above the triangle, they are arranged to show the order in which the frequency of
formant 2 decreases (front cavity lengthening).insert

image Jones a | Kenyon b | Parmenter c | Carmody d | Millet e | Russell f

Fig. 2. Tongue-height comparisons for [i] and [u] according to six different sources.

best [u] are both produced when formant 1 is centered around the second harmonic,
at 240 cycles. If without changing formant 2 for [u], formant 1 is raised to the third
harmonic (360 cycles) — which is the best harmonic for [o] — the result is a sound
much closer to [o] than to [u]. In fact, the contrast between [u] and [o] seems to depend
more on changing the position of formant 1 than that of formant 2.

This similarity of [i] and [u] formant 1 frequencies does not correspond to tongue-height
as known through radiography. The articulatory quadrilaterals of Jones 78 and
Kenyon 89 both give [u] a tongue-height much lower than that of [i] and very nearly as
low as that of [e] (Fig. 2, a and b). And this tongue-height difference between [i] and
[u] is not even as marked as in actual sets of x-rays that we have consulted. Parmenter's
radiograms of American vowels 910 show totally different tongue-heights for [i]
227and [u]: if we measure the distance in mm. from the highest point of the tongue to
the highest point of the palate, we rind that, with [a] at 8.5 and [e] at 3.5, [i] is at 1.5
and [u] at 5.0 (Fig. 2c). On the Holbrook-Carmody x-rays of superimposed vowels
from many languages, 1011 the same measurements (on another scale) give: with [a] at
24 and [e] et 10, [i] at 5 and [u] at 13 (Fig. 2d). On the Czech vowels of M. Hala, as
presented by Adrien Millet, 1112 similar measurements on a different scale give: with [a]
at 12 and [e] at 8, [i] at 3 and [u] at 8 (Fig. 2e). On the French vowels x-rayed by
Oscar G. Russell, 1213 with [a] at 9 and [e] at 4, [i] is at 2 and [u] at 5 (Fig. 2f). All these
radiograms concord rather closely in presenting a considerable difference in tongue-height
between [i] and [u] — even more difference than on the Jones quadrilateral.

If we compare two other vowels, such as [e] and [o], in the same manner, we find
almost the same aspect. Briefly, [e] and [o] have very nearly the same frequencies for
formant 1 on the spectrograms, and their synthetic production is done satisfactorily
by using the same formant 1 frequency for both; but their tongue-heights show
differences about comparable to those between [i] and [u]. For instance, on the
Parmenter x-rays, with [a] at 8.5, [e] is at 3.5 and [o] at 7.0. On the Holbrook-Carmody
x-rays, with [a] at 24, [e] is at 10 and [o] at 19.

All this confirms that tongue-height differences and frequency differences of formants
1 for different vowels do not correspond when comparing articulatory triangles
with acoustic triangles. If we look for some feature that is nearly the same for [i] and
[u], for [e] and [o], in the articulation, we find it better in the overall opening of the
mouth tract, as measured for instance by the distances between the upper and lower
incisors or by the distances between the highest point of the tongue and the point of
the palate closest to it — in other words, the general width of the structures. Either of
these two measurements show only small differences between corresponding front
and back vowels. The use of the term opening instead of tongue-height seems indicated.


Consonants. The voice bar — or formant 1 — of voiced consonants serves to further
confirm that tongue-height is not the most appropriate term in relation to formant 1
frequency. First we notice, by comparisons with one or another of the consonants
that have the most clearly delimited voice bars, that the frequency of formant 1 is in
accord with the accepted notion of degrees in opening of the mouth: judging from a
large set of consonant spectrograms we made at the Bell Telephone Laboratories of
New York (summer of 1947) (Fig. 3), the frequency of formant 1 for [b] and [d], is
always lower than for [m] and [n], and the latter is always lower than for [l].

Secondly, we notice that the frequencies of formant 1 are the same for [b] as for
[d], whereas for [b], a bi-labial, the tongue position is not involved as it is in [d].
Similarly, the frequency of formant 1 is the same for [m] as for [n], whereas the tongue
is not involved in [m] as it is in [n]. What [b] and [d] have in common, what [m] and228

image a b a d a m a n a l a

Fig. 3. Spectrograms of [b], [d], [m], [n], [l], showing the frequency of formant 1 rising from left to
right in three steps: [b d], [m n], [l]. (Scale is disposed for reading measurements at center of formants).

image i y u

image e ø o

image ɛ œ ɔ

Fig. 4. Spectrograms showing the lowering of formant 2 frequencies, either by lip rounding: [i]-[y],
[e]-[ø], [ɛ]-[œ]; or by tongue backing: [y]-[u], [ø]-[o], [œ]-[ɔ]. (Scale is disposed for reading measurements
at center of formants.)insert

[n] have in common, is not a certain degree of tongue-height but a certain degree of
overall closure.

Conclusion for formant 1

Conclusion for formant 1. The relation between formant 1 position and articulatory
position should be stated in the following terms: There is a direct relation between
formant 1 frequency rising and overall opening of the oral tract. The higher the
frequency of formant 1, the wider the overall opening; and inversely.

Formant 2

Two introductory remarks will prepare for the discussions that follow.

A. One weakness of the traditional phonetic triangle (or of the Jones quadrilateral)
is that it is based exclusively on tongue positions. It leaves out any information about
color difference that is due to other causes such as lip spreading-to-rounding. Thus it
usually places the front rounded vowels on top of the front spread ones, and the back
rounded vowels on top of the back spread ones, because it assigns them respectively
the same tongue positions. The acoustic triangle (or quadrilateral) does not leave out
lip rounding: it gives a different place to rounded vowels than to spread vowels that
have the same tongue placement (see Fig. 1).

B. A second weakness of the traditional physiological triangle is that it measures
tongue backing by the highest point of the tongue on X-ray profiles. This highest
point does not necessarily agree with back-and-up retraction of the tongue. The
acoustic triangle is probably based on actual back-and-up tongue retraction, whether
or not it agrees with the highest point of the tongue.

In those two remarks lie the main causes of discrepancy between the traditional
vowel charts (articulatory) and the acoustic vowel charts such as that of Fig. 1.

Joos, with the traditional tongue placement triangle in mind, has already made clear
the general relation that exists between formant 2 and back-to-front tongue placement.
We wish 1) to further discuss this relation of formant 2 with back-to-front
tongue placement; 2) to establish another striking relation of formant 2, the one it has
with lip spreading-to-rounding; 3) to discuss the conjugating of these two notions
into a single one.

1. We shall see here that there is a direct relation between tongue backing and
formant 2 frequency lowering, but not quite in the same sense as is implied by the
front-to-back horizontal direction of the phonetic triangle or quadrilateral. In relation
to formant 2 lowering, tongue backing is not measured by how far back the highest
point of the tongue is (as in the phonetic triangle) but by how far back-and-up the
tongue as a whole is retracted. This retraction cannot be measured as well on radiograms
as the highest point of the tongue but it does show clearly (as we shall
demonstrate farther on), and besides it is felt kinesthetically much better than the
highest point of the tongue (one feels that the tongue is pulled back-and-up more
for [u] than for [ɔ]).229

To exemlipfy this we should compare pairs of vowels that differ by tongue backing
only, all other conditions remaining practically equal. Such are the three French pairs:
[y]-[u], [ø]-[o], [œ]-[ɔ] (Fig. 4). From [y] to [u] (Fig. 4a), the lips remain equally
rounded and the jaws equally closed; the only important change is in the tongue
position which passes from extreme front-and-up to extreme back-and-up. On the
spectrogram this backing of the tongue is translated by a marked lowering of formant
2 while formant 1 remains in the same place. Exactly the same could be said of the
transitions from [ø] to [o] (Fig. 4b) and from [œ] to [ɔ] (Fig. 4c).

Comparisons can also be made satisfactorily regardless of the degree of opening as
long as the vowels agree from the angle of rounding-spreading. In the series [i], [e], [ɛ]
(Fig. 1, top left), where all the vowels have lip spreading, formant 2 lowering is in
accord with tongue backing. In the French series [y], [ø], [œ] (Fig. 1, top center) and
[ɔ], [o], [u] (Fig. 1 top right), where all the vowels have definite lip rounding, formant 2
lowering again goes with tongue backing.

For the last three vowels [ɔ], [o], [u], however, the traditional vowel quadrilateral
does not agree with the acoustic feature of formant 2 lowering (compare [ɔ], [o], [u]
on Fig. 2 with [ɔ], [o], [u] on Fig. 1). The Jones quadrilateral shows [u] less far back
than [o], and [o] less far back than [ɔ] (the way the charts are generally disposed, [u]
is left of [o], and [o] left of [ɔ]). There are two striking reasons for this discrepancy
between the Jones chart (Fig. 2) and the acoustic chart (Fig. 1). (a) The Jones chart
does not take into account the important feature of rounding, which, as we shall see
next, also has a lowering effect on formant 2. For instance, if [u], [o], [ɔ] had the same
tongue backing (as is the case on simplified quadrilateral), on the acoustic chart,
[o] would still be on the right of [ɔ] because is it more rounded, and [u] would still
be on the right of [o] for the same reason. (b) The Jones chart bases its notion of
tongue backing on the backing of the highest point of the tongue arch and not on
actual back-and-up retraction of the tongue as it is felt kinesthetically.

image ɔ | o - u

Fig. 5. Radiographs showing the back-and-up retraction of the tongue from [ɔ] to [u]. These
radiographs are reproduced with the permission of the authors, from an article entitled “Analysis of
Speech Radiographs”, by C. E. Parmenter and C. A. Bevans, American Speech, VIII, 3, p. 51.

In order to verify this last statement let us examine some radiograms of [ɔ], [o], [u]
presented by Parmenter and Bevans (Fig. 5). The 3 pictures show very nearly the
230same distance from the teeth to the highest point of the tongue, yet how different
is the mass of the tongue! Look at the tongue tip, especially. For [ɔ] it lies flat almost
reaching the top of the lower incisors. For [o] it points toward the roots of the incisors.
For [u] it disappears into the mass of the tongue. Comparing [ɔ] to [u], we are bound
to feel kinesthetically the difference in back-and-up tongue retraction that is so
eloquently shown by these X-rays. Therefore, we may conclude that there is a direct
relation between formant 2 lowering and tongue backing if we estimate tongue backing
not by the highest point of the tongue arch but by the back-and-up retraction of the
tongue as it is felt kinesthetically.

2. Let us examine the relation between lip rounding and formant 2 lowering. To
study it we may take any pair of vowels in which the two sounds differ by lip rounding
only and are about similar otherwise. Fig. 4 offers us 3 such pairs, [i] and [y] have
about same opening and same tongue fronting, but [i] has spread lips and [y] rounded
lips: passing from [i] to [y], a clear lowering of formant 2 can be observed on the
spectrogram (Fig. 4a). The same can be said of the pairs: [e]-[ø] (Fig. 4b), and
[ɛ]-[œ] (Fig. 4c).

We may conclude that there is a direct relation between lip rounding and frequency
lowering of formant 2: as the lips are rounding formant 2 is lowering, and inversely.

3. Trying to find a common denominator for the two preceding relations (tongue
backing and lip rounding) to formant 2 lowering, we noticed that both tongue
backing and lip rounding had the effect of lengthening the front (or mouth) cavity
(Fig. 4a, b, c): the highest frequency for formant 2 is obtained for vowel [i] which
seems to have the shortest possible front cavity (with maximum tongue fronting and
maximum lip spreading); the lowest frequency for formant 2 is obtained for vowel [u]
which seems to have the longest possible front cavity (with maximum tongue backing
and maximum lip spreading). We stated this at the MLA meeting of 1947 (in our
paper on the nasal resonances of French nasal vowels) and again in an article that was
to serve as a simple introduction to spectrography for French teachers. “Il existe une
relation constante et inverse entre la hauteur de la formante 2 et la longueur de la cavité
de résonance buccale.” 1314 To put this in terms similar to those that we have been using
here we should say: there exists a direct relation between formant 2 lowering and front
cavity lengthening. This is a good statement only if “cavity lengthening” is interpreted
appropriately. Cavity lengthening is not an acoustic feature here but a physiological
one: using the terminology “cavity lengthening” permits to include two physiological
movements (tongue backing and lip rounding) into one statement. In fact it must
mean tongue backing and/or lip rounding. It does not imply any notion as to the size
of the cavity. For instance, should it imply that by lengthening the cavity becomes
larger it would also imply that formant 2 is independently related to the size of the
front cavity. And that is not true or at least is not known to be true: because the speech
cavities are “mathematically unmanageable” we don't know to what extent formant 2
231is related to the front cavity; we only know that theoretically any formant is related to
the whole System of speech cavities. It is probable that the relation between formant 2
and front cavity varies for each vowel. The opinion of H. K. Dunn of the Bell Telephone
Laboratories is that the farther apart formants 1 and 2 are the more they can be
assigned respectively to the back and the front cavities, and the nearer they are to one
another the more they both must be assigned equally to both cavities. This is about
the limit of what can be known at present of the degree of independent relations
between cavities and formants.

Let us summarize our findings for formant 2.

1. There is a direct relation between back-and-up tongue retracting and formant 2
frequency lowering: the more the tongue is retracted the more the frequency of
formant 2 is lowered: and inversely.

2. There is a direct relation between lip rounding and formant 2 frequency
lowering: the more the lips are rounded (and protruded) the more the frequency
of formant 2 is lowered; and inversely.

3. Since tongue backing and lip rounding (a) both tend to lengthen the front cavity
of the mouth and (b) both have a lowering effect on formant 2 the relations expressed
in the two preceding paragraphs can be conjugated into one, to say: There is a direct
relation between front cavity lengthening and formant 2 frequency lowering: the longer
the front cavity the lower the frequency of formant 2; and inversely. “Cavity lengthening”
is not an acoustic feature, here, but a physiological one; it has two main
factors: tongue backing and lip rounding. (The mathematics of resonant cavities will
show that lip rounding ought to have this effect: narrowing of a cavity opening will
lower its resonant frequency and thus counterfeit lengthening).

Formant 3

First a few words of introduction since formant 3 is not so well known as the two
main formants 1 and 2. Synthetic speech experiments furnish us much of the following
information. 1415 No doubt that formant 3 is much less responsible than formants 1 and
2 for the linguistic color of vowels. Formant 3 is mainly to be considered as one of the
many higher resonances that show on the spectrum of any vowel. Being the lowest of
these, it has the most perceptible effect. But that is not saying much; for as a whole
these high resonances above formant 2 have very little effect on color, they mostly
add intelligibility without changing the color and are probably responsible for voice
quality. The contribution of formant 3 to the color or intelligibility of vowels increases
as formant 2 is higher. For a well fronted [i], it appears to be as important as
formant 2 in shaping the true color. For [o] and [u], its absence is hardly noticeable.
For the others it affects the degree of intelligibility but hardly the distinctive color
unless it is moved up or down from its normal position. If it is moved up slightly (as232

image ɛ | nasalized -ɛ | F3

image ɛ̃ | denasalized -ɛ̃ | F3

image œ̃ | denasalized -œ̃ | F3

image ɔ̃ | denasalized -ɔ̃ | F3

image ɑ̃ | denasalized -ɑ̃ | F3

Fig. 6. Spectrograms showing the 300 cycle shift of formant 3 when the velum is lowered (from left
to right) as in a, or raised as in b, c, d, e, all other organs being kept as immobile as possible. (Scale
is disposed for reading measurements at center of formants.)insert

image ɑ | r-colored -ɑ | F3

image ə | r-colored -ə | F3

image œ | r-colored -œ | F3

Fig. 7. Spectrograms showing the shift of formant 3 when the tongue tip is raised (from left to right)
as for Midwestern American r. (Scale is disposed for reading measurements at center of formants.)insert

little as 200 cycles) it causes a small but perceptible change in color comparable to
“more open”, “more backed” (this is not the place to describe such changes) but not
nasalization; if it is moved down, it adds r-color (midwestern r) to vowels. This last
feature was mentioned by Joos 1516 and we can confirm it after conclusive synthetic
experiments: for instance, [a] reflects r-color when formant 3 is lowered below its
normal level of about 2600 cycles, and r-color increases as formant 3 comes closer
to formant 2 (cf. Fig. 7a).

Let us examine now two cases of simple relation between formant 3 and some
articulatory movement.

1. Velum relation to formant 3. (The velum motions are involuntary. We do not
feel them and cannot control them directly. But they obey our seeking to produce
nasality and we can control them indirectly by doing just that. Therefore, “lowering
the velum, ” here, will mean “seeking to nasalize”).

Starting from an oral vowel, if we lower the velum while holding all other speech
organs immobile, the frequency of formant 3 rises considerably while the frequencies
of formants 1 and 2 remain fairly stable. Fig. 6 shows this rise of formant 3 in nasalizing
of an [ɛ]. 1617 (We are speaking only of frequencies, not of the intensities or
modes of those formants, here.) This rise of formant 3 averages very close to 300
cycles in the case of French nasal vowels as compared with oral ones. It is a little
more marked for [ɑ̃] than for the three other nasal vowels [ɛ̃], [œ̃], [ɔ̃].

The opposite experiment confirms the one above. If, for instance, a French nasal
vowel is denasalized by raising the velum while trying to hold all other organs immobile,
the frequency of formant 3 lowers by some 300 cycles while the frequencies
for formants 1 and 2 remain practically stable. Fig. 6b, c, d, e, show this lowering of
formant 3 in the denasalizing of [ɛ̃], [œ̃], [ɔ̃] and [ɑ̃]. 1718

Although this is apart from the subject, we must say here that the 300 cycle rise of
formant 3 mentioned above does not seem to be related to the nasal quality of nasal
vowels. If a nasal vowel is hand-drawn on the Cooper pattern playback and produced
synthetically, whether formant 3 is drawn with its 300 cycle rise or without has no
appreciable effect on the nasal quality of the vowel. Since the addition of the nasal
quality to the vowel, when the velum is lowered can clearly be isolated in synthetic
experimentation and can be assigned to other features than the 300 cycle rise of
formant 3, we may be justified in saying that:

a) the formant 3 rise is an unavoidable effect of lowering the velum;

b) lowering the velum causes (by adding one more cavity to the others) several
233resonances and additions, some of which are clearly responsible for nasal quality;

c) the formant 3 rise is not one of the changes appreciably responsible for nasal
quality; rather it has an effect on the color of the vowel, independently from its
nasality, and comparable to the effect of formant 2. (An article on French nasal vowels
soon to appear will treat this point in full).

We conclude that there exists a direct relation between the frequency rising of
formant 3 above its normal level and the lowering of the velum as it is lowered in

We limit our conclusion to the case where the velum is lowered “as in nasalizing, ”
that is, with the back part of the velum away from the wall of the pharynx so as to
allow the nasal cavity to communicate with the oral cavity. It is possible that lowering
the velum without the extremity leaving the wall of the pharynx be also related to the
rising of formant 3, but it is not probable. We experimented with French [ʀ], which
requires the back of the tongue and the velum to draw toward one another. In the case
of the front rounded vowels, the transitions to [ʀ] seemed to indicate, in addition to
tongue backing shown by lowering formant 2, velum lowering shown by raising
formant 3. So, it is very tempting to interpret the inverse sinuosities of formants 2 and
3 as the movements of tongue and velum drawing together. However this interpretation
is not upheld by the examination of transitions of all other vowels to [ʀ].
For instance, the [a] transition to [ʀ] shows no rise of formants 3, and the [i] transition
to [ʀ] even shows a lowering of formant 3.

2. We mentioned above how r-color can be added to [a] by lowering the frequency
of formant 3 on a speech synthesizer such as the Cooper pattern playback. To add
this r-color to any vowel, in human speech, it is sufficient to raise the tip of the tongue
(let it take the well known retroflex position) while making no effort to change the
positions of any other organs. Fig. 7 shows three transitions from an ordinary vowel to
an r-colored vowel by simple raising of the tongue tip. The vowels of Figs. 7a and 7b
were uttered by an American from Michigan. The vowel from Fig. 7c was uttered by a
Frenchman. Spectrums of the tongue raising transition always show a frequency
lowering of formant 3. The range of this frequency change is generally considerable;
it may reach 1000 cycles.


Conclusion: There exists a direct relation between the frequency lowering of
formant 3 below its normal level and the raising of the tongue tip toward a retroflex
position as in the articulation of Midwestern-American r.

However the effect of tongue tip raising is not always limited to formant 3. Formant
2 is also affected in some cases. When formant 2 is already close to formant 3 as for
French [y] and [ø], tongue tip raising lowers formant 2 alongside formant 3. More
generally, when formant 2 is higher than for [ə], tongue raising tends to lower it
toward its [ə] frequency, and when formant 2 is lower than for [ə], tongue tip raising
tends to cause it to rise toward its [ə] frequency.

Formant 1 also seems to be affected by tongue tip raising but it really is not, at
least not directly. When tongue tip is raised, formant 1 tends toward the frequency it
234has for [e], approximately. But this can be overcome by keeping the general opening
of the mouth very stable. Therefore we may say that tongue tip raising affects formant
1 only if mouth closing or opening takes place at the same time.


We have tried to bring out the articulatory meaning of formants 1, 2, and 3 of sound
spectrograms in a discussion of their relations with tongue-height, mouth opening,
tongue backing, lip rounding, front cavity lengthening, velum lowering, and tongue
tip raising; and to show that direct relations exist between the following formant frequency
changes and the following articulatory movements: 1) between formant 1
frequency raising and overall mouth opening: 2) between formant 2 frequency lowering
and tongue backing; 3) between formant 2 frequency lowering and lip rounding;
4) between formant 2 frequency lowering and front cavity lengthening, this being a
manner of conjugating statements 2 and 3 into a single one (cavity length, here, has a
physiological meaning only, not an acoustical one); 5) between formant 3 frequency
raising and velum lowering as in nasalizing; 6) between formant 3 frequency lowering
and tongue tip raising as in r-coloring.235

1* Originally published in PMLA LXVI, 5 (September, 1951), pp. 864-875.

21 X-ray pictures of the organs of speech during articulation.

32 Spectrographic pictures of the acoustic resonances produced by the speech organs during articulation,
in three acoustic dimensions: time, frequency, intensity. The first extensive presentation of
such pictures is to be found in Visible Speech by Potter, Copp, and Green (New York, Van Nostrand,
1947). Briefly, a sound spectrogram shows the energy distribution on a time-frequency scale where
time is read from left to right, frequency from bottom to top, energy by the degree of darkness.

43 For those who are not yet familiar with spectrography, we shall define the essential term formant
as it is used here. Linguistically the color of a vowel is determined by the frequency position of its
formants — mainly its two lowest formants. Let us look at Fig. 1 or Fig. 3. There, formants appear
as dark horizontal bands on a linear frequency scale (range: 3500 cycles from bottom to top). For
instance, for [œ], the lowest band is formant 1 (frequency: about 500 cycles), the one above is formant
2 (frequency: about 1400 cycles), and the next one above is formant 3 (frequency: about 2400 cycles).
Thus, on our spectrograms formants appear as the darkest areas. Acoustically, formants are the
frequency regions of greatest intensity. For voiced vowels, the number of harmonics that cross such
regions (in other words, that are comprised in formants) usually vary from one for high female voice
to two or three for male voice. The frequency of a formant can satisfactorily be given by the frequency
of its center.

54 Acoustic Phonetics (Baltimore, Linguistic Society of America, 1948), pp. 49-59.

65 Ibid., p. 57.

76 The Pattern Playback, developed by Franklin S. Cooper at the Haskins Laboratories, New York,
is a speech-synthesizer that permits us to transform hand-drawn spectrograms into sound, using
modulated light that is reflected from hand-drawn white lines. The relative intensity of each harmonic
or of each formant depends on the width of the lines drawn in the harmonic channels. For our use of
the machine, the harmonic channels were set 120 cycles apart and there were 50 channels for a total
frequency range of 6000 cycles. Among its many uses, this machine makes it possible to study the
effects upon speech obtained by omitting or adding some resonances, or by modifying either their
intensity, their frequency or their type.

87 Daniel Jones, An Outline of English Phonetics (Cambridge, Heffer, 1936), p. 63.

98 John S. Kenyon, American Pronunciation (Ann Arbor, Wahr, 1937), p. 66.

109 C. E. Parmenter and C. A. Bevans, “Analysis of Speech Radiographs”, American Speech, VIII,
iii, 51.

1110 Richard T. Holbrook and Francis J. Carmody, “X-ray Studies of Speech Articulations”, Univ. of
Calif. Publ. in Mod. Philol
. XX, iv, 230.

1211 L'articulation des voyelles (Paris, Vrin, 1937), p. 7.

1312 The Vowel (Columbus, Ohio State Univ. Press, 1928), pp. 110-111.

1413 Pierre Delattre, “Un triangle acoustique des voyelles orales du français”, The French Review, XXI
(May 1948), 477-484.

1514 See note 5.

1615 Op. cit., p. 93.

1716 The result, a nasalized [ɛ], is not to be confused with the real French nasal [ɛ̃], which does not
have the same articulatory positions, hence the same formant 1 and 2 frequencies (apart from the
velum lowering).

1817 The result of such denasalizing does not give French oral vowels [ɛ], [œ], [ɔ], [ɑ], but some strange
vowels that do not exist in French (nor probably in any language), for the organic positions of the
four French nasals (and their formants 1 and 2) are not the same as those of any French orals. This
can be shown by synthetic speech as well as by human speech.